Tth Life and Adventures of Joseph Emin




VI. 1757.

[War with France - Duke of Cumberland leaves for Westphalia - Emin stranded - (Letter to Mrs. Montagu - to Lord Northumberland) - His friends help him – Stade - Duke’s levée - The campaign. ] – NOTE.

Correspondence. To Dr. Monsey - to his Patronesses - to Dr. Monsey - to Mrs. Montagu - Extracts from Letters of Mrs. Montagu referring to Emin - Letter from Mrs. Montagu to her Sister - Emin to Lord Albemarle - to Mrs. Montagu - Lady Sophia Egerton’s letter of introduction to her Uncle - her letter to Emin - Emin to Lord Cathcart - to Mr. Pitt - Mrs. Montagu to her husband.

Emin had just began to pick up some small knowledge in Euclid’s Elements, Algebra, and drawing plans of forts, in the course of thirteen months, but hardly enough to make him fit for any of the branches in the art of war, when the hostilities began with France. Lord Cathcart spoke in behalf of Emin to his royal protector, what he should do? and asked, whether he should continue in the academy, or follow the Duke to Westphalia? His Royal Highness told his lordship to ask him, which of the two he chose? and he answered, that he preferred a campaign, where the practice of the art of war was displayed, to living in the dull theory of it; that as he was then thirty-one years of age, the seeing of one campaign might be more useful to him than study at home for five years. Such was his answer through Lord Cathcart to the Duke, who approved it much, and said to his lordship, he was glad to hear Emin preferred fighting to study. He then ordered general Napier to buy him two good horses, with camp equipages; and, having before recommended him to the Hessian General, ordered him to follow.

His Royal Highness having crossed the Channel before the Hanoverian army, Emin was left behind neglected. The Duke his patron said, it was a delicate point to interfere in, and could not give him advice, and went to his country seat; general Napier would have nothing to say to him any more, and immediately cut off his allowance.


(May 16 1757)


It was your desire that I shou’d write to you of my Situation when I come down here, which is at present a very doubtfull one, & am sorry to say so; because it will be only making you uneasey. I saw M r Muller the Cheif Master of our Academy who by the Orders of the Duke & General Napier did pay my Expences before his Royal Highness consented my going with Hesens over to Germany, but now he tells me he is not certain whether I am to have the same Allowence from the Duke or not. I don’t know how to go on, & what Step will be proper for me to take; I hope D r Madam you will not fail to give me your good Advise as soon as you receive this. I beg pardon for this Trouble I give, I will not have my Queen be vaxed at the Misfortune of her Slave who looks upon all sorts of Misfortunes of this World but a pleasent Dream. We have a Fraze among us in Persia, they say a Brave-man’s head is always in Troubles; so I am happy when every thing proves contrary to me, and I don’t care what becomes of me I am but a Mortal, I will do my Endeavour as long as I have any Life in me to serve my Country, and if I am born to save my sheperdless Nation, none shall be able to hinder me. Gods will must be done, unto whom I will put my whole Trust, be glad o! my wise Queen of Sheba for I am happy.

It is my Oppinion that my Royal Master the Duke will hardly think of answering General Napier’s Letter, which was sent on my Account as he has so much to think, and so much Business upon his Hands, that it will be necessary for me to leave that way of proceeding, and begin another new one.

Thus If you can make any Interes for me to the Duke of Marlborough by M r Medows who is my Friend, & knows his Grace very well, to procure me a Commission of Leutenantcy in the Royal Regiment of Artilery of Woolwich, it will be much better for me, for then I can go to the King of Prusia at my own Charge by the Leave of my General, and I will have no more waiting at the Great Peoples Door, from 8 in the Morning to four or 5 in the Afternoon, at last hardly any admtance. There are great many Vacanceies in the Regiment I have already mentioned, now is the time to help me, don’t you imagine that my Patron will be displeased at my getting a Commission for he has done his best, he is above asking such smal Favour as this, therefore let the Ladies, & noble Ladies, that have any Love, regard or Esteem for their persian Slave assist me in this case, & which I will not forget it as long as I live; please to present my most obedi t Service to them all.

If I cou’d succeed in this Plane it will be a very great Consequance to me, for being in the Army two Years by that time the Fate of my Letters which I have sent to Prince Heraclius will be determined, and besides the East India Company will be glad to have me in their Service, and will be a great Honour, & happiness to my worn away Father. This is all I can say at present, and will await with patience for an answer. Pray give my Compliments to my Hearty Friend M r Montigue & to honest D r D r Monsey. I am


Your and all the Noble Ladies of England

who are my beloved Friends

most obedi t, most greatfull humble Slave


The 16th May 1757 on Church Hill at M r Heatons Woolwich.

To M m Montigue.




My Lord

I was in the Dust when your Lordship looked upon me, but I was not so unhappy then as I am now: at that time I cou’d charge myself of the Likeness of no fault and I was so little, that I had no body to envy, and accuse me: but now your Lordships Goodness has held me up to y e whole world, and if you turn your face from me at this day, all men will say that I have misbehav, d or that my patron who knew me from the first wou’d not have rejected me, Whenever I look into myself, or out upon myself I see nothing, but what is your Lordships, the bread that I eat, the Cloaths that I wear, the Learning that I have Learned, the friends that look upon me, the Sword that I wear which is Glory to me, all these are your Lordships, is not then your Lordships Goodness in my mind? where shall I hide it? but when people say he is unworthy what shall I answer? I am not unworthy my Lord, I am not: I am not ungreatefull ! You Look at me no more, I hold my tongue wlthin my Heart, but Your Lordships Goodness is there speaking to me, If I Come to be a man I will speak of it, if I become a worm to be trod on, it will be in the Dirt with me. I do not know how I have the misfortune to displease your Lordship. I Cannot approach to you. I do not know now at this point that my Life turns, what to do without your Counsells, for I will do nothing but what you approve of, the war is now my Lord, to morrow it will be peace, as it was when I first Came to England, and I shall Lose an Opportunity which may never return, the thought of this makes my Life more miserable than when I Carried burthens when M r Stanhope forced me to go to Diversion I had no pleasure there twice that I went the musick was not pleasant to my Ear. My businiss is not done. I Struggled long time to go to Germany by his Royal Highness. s favour, I begin to despair, but if this Honour is too much I will by your Lordships permission go with my fathers money in M r Davis, s hands which will be fully sufficient to procure me all I Shall want. to the Camp of His Royal Highness, where I Shall have an Opportunity of being in Action, or if this will not be permitted. I will go to the King of Prussia, I would if I dare beg of your Lordships Goodness some Recommendation perhaps to my Lord Albemerle for it is but few persons in the world that will Look at a man from their own Benevolence without the Recommendation, as my Great Lord Northumberland has looked upon me. When I beg of your Lordship to do something for me, it is not so much to desire you to it, as humbly ask your Lordship Advice, whether it should be done, I say of the Reccommendation, I do not persume for more than that I will be satisfied in your Lordships Determination. I am not wanting in respect to your Lordship. I am not wanting in Gratitude for your Goodness. I have done no mean thing, and your Lordship is too generous to beleive any thing bad of me without letting me defend myself, and I have hopes for that reason that your Lordship will yet Look upon me and give me permission, and I Shall hope Recommendation to Germany where I will think both in the Camp, and in the Hour of Battle of your Lordships Goodness and your Noble Ladys who have been my first and best friends and patrons. w hatever becomes of me, may the Great God protect your Lordship, and your Noble family to be Like your Lordship, the friends of destress’d men, that strive to be men Like your Lordships.

Allways remembering and

dutyfull humble Servant



( On the back, in Mrs. Montagu’s writing. )

This letter was written to Lord Northumberland at a time when he imagined his lordship had taken some offence at his conduct.

His other noble friends were all very sorry, not knowing how to advise him. He said, "The time of advice is over; if you will enable me, I will soon make my way to overtake my royal master, in spite of some ill-natured souls. " These noble personages, finding the ardour of his spirit, soon understood his meaning, and made up a purse of sixty guineas among them, which he accepted. He found a courier going over with letters from the ministry, and having agreed to pay the man half of the chaise hire, set out in company with him for Harwich; whence they took their passage in one of the king’s cutters, which, after three days dangerous sailing, made the river Elbe. On the fourth day he arrived at Stade, and on the fifth, at a village where his royal master was quartered. After refreshing himself a little, before he was admitted, he drew an address, and sent it in by Lord Albermarle, at that time the Duke’s aid-du-camp. The following are the words of it, as well as he can recollect:

"To his Royal Highness the great Duke of Cumberland. - Your Royal Highness has taken by the hand a distressed soldier, who was mingling in the ashes of oblivion; you have raised him in the eyes of the world; may God forbid he should be forsaken; he would drop down, and be lost for ever. He finds he has done nothing to incur any person’s displeasure, but was neglected after your Royal Highness left him behind. He is come by your Royal command, with resolution to lay his head and heart on the ground before your Royal Highness’s feet. He has made it his choice, rather to embrace death than to return back with a disappointed face; and he humbly implores leave to subscribe himself your Royal Highness’s" &c. &c.

When this short petition was carried by the nobleman, a few minutes after he was admitted to the levee; which was the first time of his being honoured by that favour, during the thirteen months in which he was protected by the duke in London. No sooner had he entered the place, when the duke stretched out his hand to him, which he, making a low bow, kissed, and stood back. The first question the duke asked in a most martial commanding voice was this: "Emin, why did not you come over with the troops? Did not you hear my orders to Napier, to fit you out, and send you with the Hessian general?" He answered, "May it please your Royal Highness, according to command, I waited on him no fewer than fifteen times, and my lord Cathcart interposed to his utmost; but to no effect: the poor general had too much upon his hands to think of your Royal Highness’s servant. " Then his Royal Highness graciously took pains to explain the matter in German to the general officers who were all round him in waiting. The duke said, smiling, "Well, my Emin, what said lord Northumberland when Napier would not trouble his head about you?" "His lordship, " he answered, "was taken up in going to his country-seat; and declared he could not interfere in a point so delicate, when your Royal Highness had taken me under your auspicious protection: he was cautious in giving any advice whatever. " "I know you had no money, " said the duke: "how then did you manage it?" Emin said, "May it please your Royal Highness, while your humble servant was not known to you, he was in a state of misery; but since he has been honoured by your protection, his heart feels an increase in the riches of happiness. Should he in your absence be dashed on the hardest rocks, he is sure milk and honey will flow from them under your auspices. He was assisted; and he hopes he shall never be in want of money; but that his conduct will gain him the good opinion of the world, and maintain the goodwill of his magnanimous royal protector, whom Heaven preserve. "

After this short oriental speech, an order was sent to call general (then major) Frydakh, who commanded 600 yagers, or hunters. His Royal Highness taking much pains to explain the case to the officers, and they in their turns saying, "ya, mun hartsak, das ist eun brave kerl, " that is, "yes my duke, he is an honest man. " No sooner was the officer come in, than the glorious duke took Emin the porter’s hand, and putting it into major Frydakh’s, said these very words: "I am some how doubtful of this man’s courage. As he is so desirous of seeing service, I charge thee to be very strict, putting him in the front of every action, and bring word to me how he behaves himself: " then turning to Emin, he said, "Go with him; let me hear a good character of thee. " Here Emin’s heart broke the chain of slavery, and jumped for joy, forgetting all his former distresses; when he, who was but a meek sheep before, became a loose tearing lion. He kissed a second time the duke’s hand; and was not gone ten steps from the house, when the duke called him back and said, "Do not let me see you at head quarters: do you hear!" He bowed, and went away with the officer, who had four horses, which were for Emin’s use, and treated him with all the politeness imaginable, taking as much care of him as he could of his son. He dares not say, that the good usage of the general was merited by his wild rapidity in a whole campaign, in eighteen different skirmishes, and at the battle of Hussenbach: but when it was reported every day at the head quarters, unknown to him, the duke approved of it. He was then removed, by order of his Royal Highness, to be under general Carlton; and when the cessation of arms had taken place at Stade, the duke kept him three days at the head quarters, gave him twenty ducats, and sent him over again with a courier to London.


[By the time Cumberland, who had sailed on April 9th or 10th, reached his command in Germany, French troops had penetrated into Westphalia nearly as far as Ems, and then a delay occurred, during which Cumberland occupied Paderborn. The surrender of Emden to D’Estrées on July 2 cut off Cumberland from communication with England except through the port of Stade on the Elbe. Then came Cumberland’s defeat by D’Estrées at Hastenbeck on July 24, and Cumberland fell back on Verden, the last fortress towards Bremen. Richelieu occupied Hanover on Aug. 11, but never moved against Cumberland until Aug. 23, when Cumberland abandoned Verden and fell back again - this time to Stade, Richelieu pursuing him to Bremervörde, about 20 miles from Stade, where his exhausted troops were checked by the Hessians and Richelieu, in his turn, fell back to Klosterzeven. Then came the intervention of Denmark, and, although the Rochfort expedition was leaving England to relieve Cumberland, he signed the Convention of Klosterzeven on the very day it started. On his return to England after the loss of Hanover, his father’s reception of Cumberland was such that he resigned his command and all his appointments, Sir. John Ligonier succeeding him.

On June 18 Frederick with 34, 000 Prussians was defeated at Kolin by Marshall Dann, commanding 53, 000 Austrians, and his advance into Bohemia was held up. ]

Emin wrote a letter to Mrs. Montagu, saying

"The French seem afraid of us, tho’ so much inferior in numbers . . . . . . I hear the king of Prussia takes to himself the whole blame of his disgrace in the late affair, and says if he had followed the advice of the Prince of Bevern, it had not happen’d; there is something more great perhaps in a Monarch owning his error than in gaining a victory, but it will not have the same effect in establishing his affairs in Germany, so that in his situation the least advantage over the Empress Queen would have been of better consequence. Sir John Mordaunt, General Conway, and Colonel Cornwallis are going abroad with some forces as the Newspapers tell us, and the French seem again disposed to disturb us with the apprehension of an invasion. " - Letters of Elizabeth Montagu.

This was the Rochfort expedition commanded by Hawke and Mordaunt, intended, by a diversion, to relieve the pressure on Cumberland. Regarding this the following letter was written by Mrs. Donnellan to Mrs. Montagu on the return of the expedition, "All I can gather of this most shameful affair is that there will be no more known till there is a publick enquiry, and then if the scheme is proved by the general officers to have been impracticable, those who sent them on it, must suffer . . . . . . . . Sir J. Mordaunt and Admiral Hawke have both been to Court, the Admiral was received graciously, the other taken no notice of, ’tis said he stooped to kiss the royal hand but it was pulled back from him . . . . . . . . after some of the troops were in the boats in order to land, there was a council of war called, and when Hawke thought they were landed, they were ordered on board again . . . . . . . Hawke desired them to come to some resolution for he would either land them or come home. Colonel Conway, I hear, showed the most spirit, and that our common men showed no unwillingness to action. " - Letters of Elizabeth Montagu.


( July 30 1757 )

My Love and duty to M rs Montagu the Great

and to her husband.


The inclosed is to be coppied and sent to all my Noble Friends, you will I hope make my Appologies to them that I had no time to write it fair, we are upon march every day by your Interest. I hope they will excuse me. I have sent Letters to you & with this will make three, I expect to have an answer to them all, and to know how they are pleased, I give you my word I shall never trouble them any more I love them, I honour them, and I will remember them in all my days, and in all my Life who are the support and the Comfort of my Heart.

I was in a very bad hole you will see by the inclosed, it was God that protected us, or else we might have been taken Prisoners by the French; I receved not hardly a scrach from the Enemy, I am as well and as healthy as ever my bed is of Straw, and my eating black Bread, some time we lay out for three or four nights in the field without any cover, it was three days we had hardly any thing in the world to live upon before we had that insignificant Battle, tho the danger where we were posted was greater than any thing can be; you will please to send one the Coppys of this Letter to the Ladies to my Friend M r Burke at the Grecian Coffee House in Devoreux Court Tample Bar.

Excuse me D r D r I am in haste

Your sincere and gratefull Servant


the 30th July 1757.


No I wou’d have you to ask M r Burkes advice about this Letter before you coppy it for my Friends I will write no more till I have from you Pray don’t you be mad because my Friend is an Irish Gentleman, but I can tell you that he is your beloved son-in-Law’s Countryman I dar say you will be mighty pleased of being acquainted with him.

( On the back of this, in Mrs. Montagu’s writing )


The right honble


Lady Anson.


( Aug. 1st 1757 )

To all the Ladies, & Patroness of Joseph Emin,


I believe your Ladyships have been in a long Expectation to hear from this part of the World, more especialy of the Battle which begun on the 23rd of July in the morning; we were ordered out with 25 Horses, & 200 Foot Irregulars to secure a post, where we found 300 Husars, and 700 of Foot Soldiers, upon which we begun immediately to fire, & they retreated very soon; and in the afternoon His highness hearing that the French were advancing with their whole Army, ordered Part of his Army to advance also, but it was very unlucky for us that our Infantry was too late, and before they cou’d come up, the Enemy begun from some distance to fire upon us with their Cannons, which did no manner of Execution. His Royal Highness thought proper to return to his Camp in Aferden. The next day the 24 th the Enemy still advancing from their Camp at Halla all along the River-Vizer, and we retreating, until we halted upon a high Hill full of Trees, and they on another; where the firing of Cannons begun again on both sides, and lasted till Evening; our Situation not being so well as we cou’d wish, we still retreated till we come to Hamlen there we posted the right of our Army, and our left at Ansburg; and unfortunate Hastenbek between us & the Enemy, which was soon burnt down. The 25 th about four in the morning the Enemy begun to advance with their Musick, and Drums, making a very great noice, more like Indians than Europeans, and was soon silenced by fire of our Balls; and Cannonading begun of both sides very briskly. At that time Your Slave was upon a Hill with no more than 200 Irregulars commanded by my Friend Major Freydag (a man of great Conduct, & Judgement) where we cou’d see the two armies very plain. It was a Place had it not been so very dangerous as the Cannon Balls were flying like so many Flies over our Heads. I cou’d have wishd that My Noble Friend Ladies who are my Patroness & who are so fond of Heros, and hearing of Battles, to have seen it, which wou’d have been realy worth their while. Then I wou’d have wished again that Heavenly Charriots wd have desended from the Gods above, to have transported them to Their Native, and blessed Island, or peradventure they shoud have been in the greatest of all Dangers; For we saw about eleven of the Clock, the Enemy with no less than Six Thowsand Horses, & Foot, coming up to us on all sides with a great fury (except a little Pass which led us down to our Army). But this Bravery of theirs was greately owing to an Information which they had of us a day before. Knowing that we were no more than two hundred men, or else they wou’d not have been so furious in their attack. For they are vastly like the black Indians, fire at a great distance, and run away. However we stood almost half an Hour, our men ralyed three times, and killed no less than three hundred of them; for our men are brought up from their Infancy as huntsmen they never miss the Mark, I have seen them shoot at 300 Yards distance, they are like the mountaineers of Armenia, and Dagostan. The French Husars run away as soon as they see us. You see my Noble Ladies what great Advantage it is to a Nation who has the Liberty, not only kill the Partridges, but to kill as many Deers and other Animals as they please. The Loss of our side was but 20, & six wounded; we cou’d not support it any longer, and were obliged to retreat, and join the Army. And about 2 oClock in the afternoon the Enemy retreated with the Loss of eleven Cannons, and had taken some of ours, but we have retaken them again. But the Battle continued still, and lasted from 4 in the morning to 6 in the afternoon. The Loss of their side was about Three Thowsands, and about twelve hundred of ours. We don’t look upon this as a Battle in Persia but as a Scarmish. The Inventor of Gun Powder is cursed by many Ignorant People, but his Invention has been a very great Service towards the Preservation of mankind. Gun Powder is a thing which makes a great noice, like Lightning, & Thunder, keep’s mankind at a distant, with an awe. "The Thought of Gun Powder says the Great Marshal de Sax is more than the danger itself. I wou’d wish to have no more than fifteen Thowsand Persian Horses, if it is not too bold & your humble Servant the leader of them we cou’d soon shew the French that the effect of Symiters wou’d be greater than that of Gun Powder, tho’ their Number by what we hear is one hundrid, & fifty Thowsand men, and what ours is you well know. At present we are upon Marches, & countermarches. I think we rather keep away from them instead of their retreating from us, as I mentioned before. I write this from Limburg, and the Enemy is at Hamlin where the right of our Army was posted, you may easely know by a Map where our, & Enemy’s situation are.

I am with the same Corps as I have mentioned in my last, in hopes of going among the Regulars to learn the Exersice, and Evolutions; the Expences of Camp Equpage will amount to a great deal of money, and I have not yet received the least thing from my Royal Master. I will be as little trouble to him as possible, and no more Expence to my great Soul Ladies. I was in a great hopes of serving a Campagin under the King of Prussia after this, but I find I must give over that Hope, for it is impossible for me to do it with less than hundred and fifty Pounds p r Year, let me live ever so near; for which money I shall never trouble your Goodness, nor bend any more my Neck to the Greatest Prince in the universe. Do not think I write this as a Hint, but beleive me as I am a man of Honour & Truth I will be as good as my word. I shall say nothing, I must lose no time. If my Royal Protector will do according to my Expectation as he is a great Prince, as well as good; and if not, I must take my Leave of him, and return to my Father, then to my Country. I can no longer be a Begar, and your Ladyships who are my Constant and sincere Friends, will not be displeased to find your Slave has y e Spirit of a man of Honour, and who will not forget the great Friendship you have done to him. Now you will think all I am too hasty, but I say I have reason to be so hasty, I have seen enough, 5 Years & half in England, I have seen a smal Battle, I shall see a little more while in this Campagin, which will be more than ever Kouly had before he became so great a man. I hope not to be so great a Tyrant as he was, & if there is any tyrranny in my Blood let me never live, let me be destroyed, and never heard of, let me live, & die like an honest good Christian which is the Greatest Ambition I have in this World. If I have any genius, and if God almighty his made me to lead a Nation, all what I have seen, & learnt will be an Ornoment to it, and if not I will be like the rest of many Officers and Soldiers who have been Scores of Years in the Service, and are just the same, as they first entered. Thus the Art of War whoever is the master of it is the Gift of God as well as any other Science. Iron never can be made into Silver, nor lead into Gold. Here again an obscure asiatick Symily which is in my Nature I tried to avoid it but I could not, saying that Iron is, Iron & Gold, is Gold.

I am

My Noble Ladies & Patroness

Your most obed t

most gratefull most obliged

humble Servant



Limburg the 1st August 1757.

Excuse the Badness of Paper

the Errors of this Letter.

( On the back of the Letter ).

To all the Noble Ladies Who are the Patronesses of

Աé աÙեÝաÛÝ ԱզÝáõաó ïÇÏÝáó áñù էÝ ïÇñáõÑÇ.

Joseph Emin.

ÚûíëէփաÛ ԷÙÇÝ.



D R DOCTOR ( Aug. 22 1757 )

God almighty bless you for remembering me after so long a time, however I thank you for the great Kindness you express in your most gracious, most venerable Letter, and you thank me for condisending - Lady A - to you and I am obliged to you for geting me into the Favour of that great & incomparable Queen of the universe, who has honoured me, with such instructive Letter as it will be hardly possible for me to express how much I am indebted to you for geting me such Noble Instructor. My Lady Ansons precious advice and your Oppinion of writing to my first, & last Patron Lord Northumberland is very good advice, I will do it, and you shall see it before it goes to him.

If I write a compleat answer to your Letter, my D r D r I shall not have time enough to write to my other Friends, you are desirious to know how my Royal master do? upon which I ask d M r Andrews he told me with making his compliments that H. R. H’s Leg is quite well & therefore pray be easey. Mr Andrew’s thinks is hardly worth while to Write, in hopes of seeing you in old England soon, for we have made Peace with the French in this Part of Europe by the help of the King of Denmark; after our great War with that coward French men, which you seem to be afraid of at this time. I don’t mean D r Monsey, but his Countrymen. My compliments to your Son & Daughter I am

D r D r

Your obliged humble servant


Yours 22 d August recd. 13 th September in Had.


my obedience to M r & M rs Garrick

P. S. my Com ts to M r Burke

need not write any Letter

( On the back of the letter )

Thank you for calling on my little Charmer

I beg you will do so as often as you go to your daughter

I am very uneasey about your grant Daughter I hope to see her in perfect health in short




( Sept. 14th 1757 )


Your Persian Slave whom you have been pleased to honour with the Title of a Hero is yet alive, and is intirely captivated by the most instructive Epistle of his noble Queen, for the sake of whom he is always ready as well, as for his disstressed Country to risque his single Life in all sorts of Dangers; especialy for that great, & encreasing Affection; in which she expresses herself in a most tender manner. Madam it is out of the poor Power of your Slave to shew by writing how much he is indebted to your Goodness & Humanity: for I dar say you feel as much for him and have so great Regard for him as if he had been really your own, and your dearself his Queen; (I hope my Friend M r Montagu will not be displeased at this, for it is true what I say, He must be the happiest man in the World: to have possessed the wisest of all Women whose greatness of Soul is to be honoured and talked in the presence of Kings, and who is worthy to rule Kingdoms and Empires; I say again, happy are those that can see you always. The Jewels, and all the precious Diamonds on the Pea Cock Thone of Grand Mugol is not enough to purchase those words that comes out of the mouth of my Queen Sheba. I cannot help to envy those who have her Company often. Let them think themselves happy, and proud; let them adorn her Person, and admire her great Wisdom; I am sorry & vaxed that I have had no proper Education. I might have sat down, & wrote years togather in the Prais of you madam. It hurts me, because I cannot enough express my Sentiments to shew how much I am obliged to her, for she is good, she is wise, she is generous, and she is great.

Now madam if I can I will answer the rest of your Letter, and if not you will excuse me. I am sorry for my Royal master who was worthy of Victory for the great Fitigue & hardship he underwent; but I am glad at your informing me that the People of England are convinced of his great generalship, they begin to know a little better, and I am very glad of it, and I shall be more so if they continue so: for they are very changable People (Fairsex excepted) M r Addison in his Poems upon the nature of men when he comes upon English Nation discribes the following Lines. "Fickled of mind" changing as their Skies, so soon they value they as soon despise. I think he gives a very pretty and a true Character. Pray madam do not be angry at this my Remark, I know you love your Country as well as I do mine, and you are pleased to call me your Hero, and be not displeased when I speak like a Hero, who is obliged to your tender care for advising him to live well, that I do, as long as you are mine. But believe me madam it was owing not that I grudge money, or I wanted it, for we cou’d get nothing else but black Bread & sour milk: It is the Food which common People of this Country subsist upon. For the Jager Corps which I was in were ordered to keep always at the rear of His Highness’s Army, in order to know the motion of our Enemy, after I have been in this Corps above two Months, my Royal master thought I have learnt enough in that way of fighting, he ordered me to come, & quarter near him; and have been so for this 8 Weeks past; before the Pease was made, He sent me with one of his Aidecamps, to learn, & chuse Place for encampment, and now it is Pease you will soon see your humble Servant again, and ever since I dined at the Kings Second Table by his Permission, with his Officers, and sometimes Generals; He treates me becoming to himself, you see I lieve like myself, and will have you for my Queen, Venerable D r Monsey my Phisician, and great M r Burke my Secretary of State; none shall escape me, I will have every thing I aim at Tell for me to D r Monsey the Lady who condesended to him for his Oppinion of my writing to my Patron Lord Northumberland, was right, I am obliged to her good Counsel, she always writes to me in y e third Person. Your observation upon my Persian Simily upon Gold, and Iron; it is very wise one. I chained my hands with it in making such simily. I am now in thine hands lead me which way you Please, but madam have mercy on me. I acknowledge when the Iron is polished, and sharpened may deliver a Country from Slavery, as it did once Rome out of the hands of the Gauls, who put the Romans under Contribution, to pay so many Talents of Gold, when they were weighing it, the King of Gauls, threw his Sowrd into the Scale, to make the Weight havier, there came a brave Roman, I think it was martius took out the Sword, and said thus "Our Country shall be delivered by this Iron, and not by the Gold"; So madam when Iron once is polished may save a country by the hand of an honourable Murderer as you are please to call, and Gold which has its natural value may ruin a Country. O wise madam I admire at your Hints be ye in Health and live long Life. I am glad you have been amusing your dearself seeing different Places I wish it may do you good and add to your Health; but I am sory to find you are so much discouraged for you shall not be my Queen if you don’t have as great a Heart as your great Soul. about the unprosperity of Germany & a merica; why madam? have not we People enough to defend us? have not we Liberty enough to make us happy, and ruin us afterwards?; O Pity, and thousand Pities, that you shou’d lose Courage without Cause. If we had thought that we were born to die we need not fear of Invasion, let us become one will and one mind we will soon shew our Enemy that we are not afraid of them. I am in haste madam and remain with the utmost Gratitud and sincerity

Your great Wisdoms admirer

and most dutyfull humble Servant & Slave


the 14 th Sep r 1757 at Stad

at his Royal Highness’s Quarters

my duty to Lady Sophia Egerton and my Compliments to Mr. Montagu.

excuse the errors

To M rs Montagu the great

( On the back of the letter )



Mrs. Montagu.

Letter of Mrs. Montagu, August 7, to Dr. Benjamin Stillingfleet (b. 1702 d. 1777. Author of "Calendar of Flora" etc. ).

"Mr. Emin was most graciously received by the Duke, had offers of money and all marks of regard from his Royal Highness, so that his letters express the highest satisfaction . . . . . . there must be a nobler seat than the Persian throne reserved for that fine spirit, which, born in slavery and nurtured in ignorance, aspired to give liberty, knowledge and civil arts to his country. To compass this he risqued his life, and endured the greatest hardships, and ventured all dangers and uncertainties in a country whose very language he was a stranger to; how different from so many of our countrymen, who for little additions of power and greater gratifications of luxury, in spite of their pride of birth and advantage of a liberal education and the incitements of the great examples of all ages and nations, will hazard enslaving us to a nation our forefathers despised. "

From Merton, on August 30, Lady Frances Williams (daughter of the Earl of Coningsby, married Sir Charles Hanbury Williams, statesman, poet, and wit) writes to Mrs. Montagu and in her letter alludes with much joy to Emin’s safety. In a letter to her husband dated July 1757, Mrs. Montagu writes "We had a report that the Duke had killed 3000 French but he is well off if he can keep on the defensive. I had a letter from Mr. Emin that the Duke of Cumberland had received him in the most gracious manner, and he is so pleased, I believe he thinks one more step will put him on the Persian throne. It is happy to be born of a hoping constitution, his day dreams are very pleasant. I wish his patriot spirit was communicated to a dozen or so of our great men. "

In another letter to Dr. Stillingfleet, Sept. 15, 1757, Mrs. Montagu writes of Emin, "I do not hope to see him on the Persian throne, or giving laws to the East, but I know he sits on the summit of human virtue, and obeys the laws of Him who made that world the ambitious are contending for, and to such only my esteem pays homage. " ( Letters of Elizabeth Montagu. )



My brother and W. at. Lond n Morris a child. Letter from Emin noticed by D. of Cumberland.

Wednesday morn



I am glad to find our friend sets a due value on the noble Creature Man to tell you the truth I should not think he made a bad bargain for himself if he accepted of an ։150 a year however as he is not fit to contend with any difficulties I would not advise him to it. I am sorry the circumstances do not suit, for as you seem to think she has sense and spirit she would make a proper wife & a help meet for our friend, who is certainly very deficient in many particulars. My Brother Morris & his wife left us this morning, they will be very happy to-night at seeing their little one whom they seem very fond of, I hope the poor little fellow will live, & make as reasonable & honest a Man as his Father, whom they say he resembles in Countenance & shape, & also in temper, for he is always laughing, & in ye Course of the day never cries but when they put on his cap which I suppose he thinks a mere foppery. My Brother spoke very affectionately of Miss Arnold, & M rs Robinson enterd much into her commendation, & took notice of her being pleased with having a Brother, & of her great civility & kind behaviour towards her when she was at Bath. I had a letter from M r Emin last post, the Duke took him from the Jagers & placed him in a Camp near to him, & he dined at ye 2 d table with the considerable officers, & was employed in going to look out ground for an encampment, he says ye Duke is in good health, they are all daily expected in England. Mr. Emin’s letter is intirely in the Asiatick stile with an address to M r Montagu upon his great felicity in having such a wife that wd make you laugh, upon the whole he has tad an agreable Campaign for a Man who dispises danger & volupté. If one considers he was a Porter 5 years ago it is some rise to be allowed free conversation with ye Duke of Cumberland, & to be particularly distinguished by him, at which he seems pleased but not at all surprized. You may suppose the way he has made for himself in England does not abate & diminish his enthusiasm & adventurous spirit. I suppose M r William will be here to-day or to-morrow. I expect my Dear friend Boscawen on Saturday. I shall send you two brace of partridges, some potted pigeons, & an 100 of Cray fish by to-morrows Coach. I must attend Miss Morgan who comes this morning to place ye flowers of M rs Boscawen gown, so I must reserve my pleasure of writing you a longer letter till another post or two, & I will then send you the bookes. We are to-day in all the magnificence & luxury of a summers day. I rejoyce that you are Again able to ride on horseback. I cannot get a proper horse which is a grief to me. I beg my best respects to Lady Barbara & affeet te love to Miss Arnold. Perhaps I may be able to tell you in my next how our Lovyer finds himself, as he gets at a greater distance from his Mistress & her estate which seems to have made a considerable part of his passion. Adieu my Dear, & very Dear Sister!

I am most affec tly y rs

E. M.


( Sept. 19 1757 )


as long as your Lordship is my Friend and His Royal Highness my Protector (to whom God protect & grant always Victory) I need not fear to speak, to express my Thoughts freely.

I inclosed here the 20։ Notes which I have no ocasion for, so as His Royal Highness’s Eyes will not be away frome. I want nothing, and if I am not turned out of the Room again that is sufficient for me; I am gratefull, and always will be so.

my Lord

Your Lordships

most obed t most humble Servant


the 19 th Sep r 1757

( On the back )


The Right Honourable

The Earl of Albemarle

There’s a long story about this. He sent back a 20 note to L d A. but Major freiday advis’d him not, so it did not go, - I am glad, He has a noble Soul, incapable of recieving because hee is so of offering insult; - I’ll write it you when I have time.

( On the back of the letter )

The Hon. Edward Montagu Esq.

at Sandleford





( Oct. 4 1757 )


Let not your Angr fall havy upon our worthy, & sincere Friend Monsey tho’ he has made you uneasy about me (concerning Bank Notes which he has mentioned to you, & you are under anxiety to know it) but still he deserves to be our head Phisician when you reign Takuhy of Persia. I tell you madam there is nothing that will be the least prejudice to your Slave, it is needless for me to write, and to you a Trouble to read; so I will have you to be quite Tranquil about me, untill I have the Honour to see you again, then I shall be able to give you an account of my Conduct, & Behavour during in His Royal Highness’s Camp who has been extreamly gracious to me, and is, & will still be so as long as I live; and it was his Pleasure that I shou’d return to England to wait for his arrival, & further Pleasure;

Now my dear madam I am yet alive, but lead a miserable Life. To be in the same Land with you, and not being able to see you. Hard indeed, and is very hard; had I thought my Presence wou’d not be the Occasion of puting you into some inconveniencies, I would walk it, but you are so exesive good, and delicate in your Friendship, that you will not make so free as to say. "Slave Emin take yourself away for I have a Business at Present. " I shoud be very happy if you wou’d do so, besides I am always in Fear, not knowing how long I shou’d stay, even when I have the Pleasure of your sweet, & instructive Company. To tell you madam after my misery which is above mentioned, I have one very great Consulation that is, when I am alone in my Closet, I make a Teliscop of my mind, and when I have made it, I fix my Eyes to it, & through which I discover your Picture painted on my little Heart, by the great Wisdom of my sincer Friend M rs Montagu, I begin to be overjoyed, and glad; like the Poor, & whether bitten Mariners at sea when they see their Native Land. It is a secret Satisfaction nothing can be compared to it, nor any man can presume to have the least Idea of it, without being on sea himself I am


Your most Faithfull Servant & Slave


4 th Octo r 1757.

P. S. my Compliments to my good Friend M r Montagu, & my Love & duty to M rs Boscowen.

( On the back of the letter )


The Great Mrs. Montague.

[The two following letters were written by Lady A. Sophia Egerton, wife of the Bishop of Bangor.

Sophia, (b. 1701), and Elizabeth Adriana (b. 1703, d. 1765), were the 1st and 2nd daughters of Hans William, 1st Earl of Portland, by his second wife Jane, daughter of Sir John Temple, Bart. In 1718 Lady Portland was State governess to the daughters of George II.

Sophia married Henry de Grey, Duke of Kent, in 1728. In 1720 Elizabeth Adriana married the Hon. Henry Egerton, Bishop of Hereford. Their son, John, born 1721, was collated by his father to the rectory of Ross, in Herefordshire. He married in 1748 his cousin Anne Sophia, daughter of the Duke of Kent, and he was consecrated Bishop of Bangor in I756. He continued to hold the rectory of Ross, whence, as may be seen from the address, Lady A. Sophia Egerton, his wife, wrote the two following letters in 1757. The Bishop of Bangor became Bishop of Durham in 1771. Lady Sophia died in 1780, and he married again in 1782. He was a great benefactor to his county by reason of the encouragement he gave to public works. The "serophim children" (p. 161), were a daughter, and three sons, one of whom died in infancy, the other two becoming successively Earls of Bridgewater.

Lady Sophia’s uncles in Holland were the sons of the Earl of Portland, William, born 1704, and Charles John, born 1708, d. 1779. William was made a Count of the Holy Roman Empire on his marriage with Countess Sophie of Aldenburg, 1733. ]


To Count Bentinck.

( Emin’s arrival )

( Lady A. S. Egerton. )

Ross Dec. y e 14 th 1757.


Your obliging indulgence to me gives me encouragement to trouble you by M r Emin with this letter to recommend him to your Favour - he is by Birth an Armenian, his Father is a Merchant at Calcutta, where having seen with much astonishment the European dexterity in the management of Ships and Arms, he conceived there was a possibility of his learning from Them, such arts, as might render him capable of releiving, or at least improving, his own People; this amazing Plan has been hitherto prosecuted with the most singular Firmness, & success; the particulars of his History I leave to him to relate: - he is now going to visit his Countrymen in Holland, and as desirous of being permitted to pay you his respects, as I am of shewing you a man, who from his extraordinary Character, & Experienced Merit, has been much noticed in England, by the Worthy, or ingenious. I flatter myself my Dear Uncle you will pardon this freedom, & accept by M r Emin the many Compliments & respects my Lord & I have charged him to present, with the

assurance of my being

Dear Sir

Your most obliged Neice

& obedient faithfull

humble Servant




Ross Dec: y e 14 th 1757


I send you enclosed a letter, (Open, ) for M r Bentinck which I leave to you to seal & deliver if it meets with your approbation.

I must mention that I have another Uncle, M r Charles Bentinck, in Holland whom I am perswaded would be pleased with seeing you if he should at the Hague when you go there, but as Lady Margaret Bentinck, his wife, is Aunt to the Duke of Richmond you cannot want any introduction from me, & I will only trouble you with a request to present them my Lords sincere respects, as well as mine.

I cannot conclude without presenting you my Lords kind Compliments, & telling you that amongst the many good wishes we make for you, we selfishly add a hope that we may repeat them to you in person before you leave England.

I am

S r

Your faithfull humble Servant




I have suffered along with the rest of Nation, that his Royal Highness the Duke has been indisposed, he is now thank God in perfect health; but my exellent Lord Northumberland is now laid up in the Gout, so that I am unfortunate on every side; tho in my heart his suffering gives me more pain than my own Loss; and yet I lose no little thing by my Friends Indisposition; and your Lordship so full of Business can hardly have time to think of an unfortunate Soldier as I am. Therefore I take the Liberty to make this my humble, & short Address to your Lordship that your Lordship will be pleased to use some interest in my behalf to his Royal Highness again, by which I may obtain Orders to go to the Academy at Woolwich where your Lordship has first thought a fit School for me to go to, and that I may not lose the Opportunity of improving myself since I know that I am crowned with the Happyness of having such Noble Friends, and Protectors as your Lordship, and my Lord Northumberland, but I shall be still happier when I find myself that I have made some Progress in my Undertakings by your Lordships Assisstance & Consideration I am

my Lord

Your Lordships &c.


( March 1758 )


Though I never had the Honour to be known to you, yet I have the Boldness to write. I have been over great Part of the World, and have seen much People; but I wanted to see Men; for the Design of my Travel was Knowledge, and I thought that Knowledge of real Men was better than Books, therefore I have turned my Eyes upon all ways, and at last had the great Happyness, of seeing, and hearing you in that Potent House of Commons, and there I discovered like the Light breaking upon me, what my Friends had often told me, of your great Love to your Country, and your wise Eloquence that conqueres more than the Sword of a Hero. I own I grew a little Envious, for I thought no man loved his Country better than I have mine, but I confess it that I am nothing tho I have been Sailor, Porter, Slave, and suffered every thing in every shape, to make my Country what you have made yours. Several Armenians, suffer Hunger, Thirst, and take long Journeies, but all those Hardships are only for money. I the first of them have done it for Knowledge, and for my Country. This is my small Merit, and the only Recommendation I can make to you.

Sir I will observe that a Cloudy day of Winter is light enough to see what is about us, and to serve common Business, but permitt me to say, that no man is happy, nor in good Sperit untill the sun shines out. Then there is Joye upon all mens Faces. Thus it is Great S r with me in this Country. I along with the rest in this happy Land find Benefit of the Light you give us all by your great Wisdom of governing, but I am not happy, and my Life is dead in me untill I see the Vezir Azam of England.

If You do me this high Honour you will see a poor Soldier whose only Fortune is a Character with all People which I have been amongst. I was a Porter for Learning not for Livelihood, and I was honest in that low way. This is known, when by the goodness of great Souls I was raised from that. I was not idle nor ingreatefull. I have been high, and low, and I was not bad. When I served the last Campain in Germany, all the officers both the English, and the Germen will say more of me than I dare to think of myself.

I have Sir in my Studies for my Country, found the way to advance it, and do some Service to your Noble Nation at the same time. My humble Plan for this good Design I will do myself the Honour to shew it to you, and to be instructed by your gread Wisdom, and to give me new Lights in this Great matters. My Scheme has two Qualities which makes some laugh at me, others seem to like me for it. Whatever it is, it is little without your assisstance. If you approve it I laugh at those that laugh at me, at any Rate, I am resolved and nothing shall stop me, but Death, which is common to every Body, and an honest Heart need not fear any. I am with the Greatest Respect, and Veneration

Great S r

your most obedient most obliged

devoted humble servant


in the month of March 1758.

To the R: H: William Pitt &c. &c. &c.

( On the back in Mrs. Montagu’s writing )

This letter was addressed to Mr. Pitt

Secretary of State.


Emin March 1758

Lady Medows was

Mr. Montagu’s sister.



As I had not ye pleasure of a letter from you last post, & so am not by that means furnishd with matter for a letter, & this Town is so dull & quiet as to afford no kind of news, I shall not encroach upon your leisure as I am apt to do by a long letter. I never knew ye Town so empty of company & void of news, Ad l & M rs Boscowen dined here yesterday, drank y r health & desired their compliments. M r Isaacsons called on me this morning they dined with Lady Medows on s unday. Emin dines with her Ladyship to-day if joy can give appetite he will make a good meal, for by ye sollicitation of Lady Yarmouth M r Pitt has received him & promised to see what can be done For him, as great minds are akin, M r Pitt was much pleased with him. Emin repeated to me his discourse to M r Pitt, & it was full of Asiatick fire & figure, if it did not touch ye Statesman it must ye Orator. M r Pitt made him great complim ts. I hope they will be realised: & they surely will if Lady y armouth continues her desire to serve him. My little Nephew is perfectly well. I hope you will receive no detriment from ye bad weather, since yesterday the weather is more mild but it is now rainy. I desire my comp ts to all our friends. I am ever most affectly & faithfully

Y rs

I am very well and shd. E. M.

therefore be very happy

if my Dearest was not

at such a distance.

The dates and other notes printed in italics, and some in brackets, at the beginnings of these letters, are all in Mrs. Montagu’s writing on the original letters, and are evidently notes made for the purpose of classification.