Tth Life and Adventures of Joseph Emin




[Decides on going to Turkey, thence to Armenia – Leghorn - Mr. Kinlock - Emin "a dangerous fellow" - Severe illness at Florence - Horace Mann - Mr. Thompson of Leghorn - Emin reciting his adventures like Othello - Governor of Leghorn grants him a passport - Mr. and Mrs. Charles Evelyn - Voyage to Alexandretta - First stage of journey - Emin poses as an Englishman to the terror of a Turk-Aleppo - Journey through Armenian villages - Erzroum - Snowbound till April - Etchmiatsin - Dogs set on him by holy monks - Penance for killing a dog, property of Holy Church - Companions in penitential chamber - Set free by the Catholicos - Returns to Aleppo - To England - Dr. Patrick Russell’s letter. ]


A copy in the possession of Mrs. Montagu, undated, but probably written

about this time.


I have a Favour to beg of you which is this, that yon woud write to your Correspondent Mr. Maningham to prevail on my Father to send me an Order on you for ։300 Sterling, to be paid me at such time as I am returning to the Indies or to my Father for I do not desire to have it before that time.

My reason for desireing this Money its that I may be able to purchase certain warlike Accoutrements Mathematical Instruments, and Models of different things which will be necessary to me.

Be pleased to acquaint my Father that I have again put into your Hands the ։60, , 0, that you were so good to pay me by his Order, and if he seems to doubt this, may I beg you woud order M r Maningham to pay the whole ։60, , 0, to my Father and I will give you up your Note of Hand or allow it on the Balance whichever you please.

If my Father will not pay to M r Tarkan the ։12, , 10s. or 100 areat Rupees that were sent to purchase a pair of Pistoles & which I paid you Yesterday I must beg you woud order M r Maningham to pay that sum of ։12, , 10,, to my Father, and he will then I am sure pay it to M r Tarkan.


( April 26 )


my dear Friend

I thank my God, and Protector, now am going au with a chearfull Heart & satisfaction to my mind All these I own to whom I have obtain Wisdom, & Understanding, and he will stand my my designs in rediming my disstressed Countrymen, Fear not, nor greive f of Emin your Friend, do not pity, and say poor Emin, but say thus, let per. Live and die like a man.

Give me leave to make this my Will, and you my Absence, you are to act for me as if I was present. What you do according shall be always right, and remain in full force. I inclos’d in this a cop Exchange amounts to 1-28 Dollars in e nglish money two hundred & k Sterling drawn upon M r Richard Willis’s Partner, M r Paton at Leghorn that I am to have it, but in case any accident shoud happen to me or I shoud happen to die in the Way, he is to pay you the above some two hundred and thirty fife Pounds, and you to receive, or your Order, and do what you think best with. And another Note of M r Williss by which you will see he has insured everything I take with me on board of Prince Edward I have paid him four Guineas for insuring of it; that if I shou’d be taken by the French, you are to be advis’d by him, and receive the Money for me which is eighty Pounds, so far right and hope you will understand it sufficiently.

I have received my first years Pay from my noble Friends for which I thank them with a greatfull Heart, and I hope one day to have it in my Power to return them. Permitt me to give you the Instruction for the second year of Their Favours how you are to proceed in it. llowings are the Gentlemen & Ladys who will advance the Money





Earl of Northumberland my Prince & Patron





Guineas pd.







dy Anson a Bank Note of

.. pd.





dy Sophia Egerton 25 guineas

.. not pd.





Lord Lytteton


.. not pd.








.. not pd.








20։ bank note








.. not pd.





161,, 10,, ,,

to receive this as soon as they returned from the

for the next Winter, and apply to M r Willis the

nt my Friend that he shall write to his Friend

at Constantinople or any par of Turkey to pay me

some of money or to my order as you will desire

[This letter is very worn and ragged, and a piece is missing here. ]

nor my Lady Sophia

The rest are to continue besides the Arch Bishop of Canterbury

my Lady Anson will instruct you about that

so that my dear Doctor you are to send the Advice before

the month of November or December next 1759 that

I shou’d be able to receive it in 1760 in the month of


out of the above money is to be paid eight Pounds and no more

to my Taylor M r Hiatt and to have recd in full and

send me the remainder whatever it is that is you are

to pay whenever you see my hand Writting and not before Witness

my Hand


the 20 th april 1759

To Doctor Monsey.

I set out for Battle tomorrow morning.



28 April 1759


My dearest Lord, and noble Counsellor

I was unfortunate for not finding your Lordship awaked, last Saturday to take my proper Leave, but I own I was not sorry because it woud renewed, and make still more the great Greif of my Heart. For it is better for me to be allways flying from a thing that is tender and pityfull, test it shou’d have more effect on my mind than it is necessary. To tell you the truth my Noble Lord, I was wastly glad I cou’d not see My Comfort, and my Heart M rs Montagu, for I shou’d have cried, and shed Tears like a Child. tho I tried the night before when I had the Honor to supp with her Ladyship, but still I was upon a very weak foundation of shewing my Tears. And upon my Word I have been ever since extreamly angry with myself to think how much like a Boy my Heart behaved on those Matters. Shame for me, and how little, I have made myself. Had I been Father of Dozen Children I ought not as much as to fetch a Sigh, therefore it shews I am yet a Puple and hope to behave better, or behave like a man, when I am among my Countrymen, where I shall find the World, not the School.

I have been here my good Lord since last Monday, and am afraid to stay here more than I wish to stay. Our Captain says fortnight. I doubt it will be more than that, very little advantage to my Purse. I lodge with one M r Newhorn. I dined with the Dean of Exeter few days ago, he is very well, he desired me to be remembered to M rs Montagu the same I entreat your Lordship with my humble Respects to her, and tell her I am always her slave I am

my Lord your Lordships

most obed t and humble Servant


P. S.

If you honor me with a line let it be inclosed to the Dean he will send it to me.


[Mrs. Climenson refers in her book to another letter of Emin’s, dated June 9, 1759, written on board the Prince Edward from Genoa, where the boat was in quarantine. I have not the original of this letter. There was a mention of the voyage in it, two ships having chased the boat for two hours off the coast of Spain, and the letter seems to have been an interesting one, so that it is to be regretted that I do not possess it. Mrs. Climenson says that Emin was on his way to cross Turkey to join Prince Heraclius with letters of recommendation from his father and the principal Armenians of Calcutta, also a letter to the "Archbishop of Armenia, " but there was never any such person as an "Archbishop of Armenia. " Apparently the reference is to the Catholicos, or Supreme Patriarch of the Armenians. ]

Here Emin thought proper not to lose any more time, and consulted the earl of Northumberland, about going in one of the Turke Company’s vessels to Aleppo, and thence to the Armenian mountains. His lordship, approving of it, favoured him with a few guineas; the late Charles Stanhope, Mrs. Montague, the late lady Anson, Miss Talbot, and the late lady Sophia Egerton, likewise added a few more; and these, with part of his father’s money saved he paid to one Mr. Willes, a merchant in the city, from whom he took a draft; and when he arrived at Leghorn, he received the sum of 250 Venetian zechins from his partner Mr. Panton. Mr. Kinlock, who was going to take the office of consul at Aleppo, and who had promised before, at Dr. Campbell’s in London, to protect him at Aleppo, in case of necessity, now made an apology, and said, He was very sorry he could not perform his promise, since the merchants of the Turkey Company had strictly charged him to have nothing to do with Emin, for fear the Turks should be apprized of his intention, and the Company should be drawn into a scrape. "Take not even the least notice of the Armenian, " said they, "for he is a dangerous fellow. " Mr. Kinlock shipped himself off from Leghorn to Aleppo; and, sure enough, Emin the mad-man was left behind, entirely helpless and destitute of friends, vexed to the very soul, not knowing what to do with himself, and surprized at the barbarity of both Mr. Kinlock and those fearful merchants, who were cruel enough not to acquaint him with their intention while he was in London, where he might have taken some other step.

He remained at Leghorn six weeks in that comfortless situation; having hardly an acquaintance but Mr. Panton, who was a merchant, with an indifferent way of thinking too common with that cast, and no other ship to sail for Scanderoon, he hired a poor chaise, and went sixty miles up to the beautiful city of Florence. On the way he was taken ill with a very severe pleurisy, the common disorder of the country, which is reckoned the most dangerous of all indispositions. No sooner had he reached the city, with much ado to keep himself up, than he took a lodging with one signor Giovanni Baptista, who with difficulty understood him; but when he came to know his disorder, with great humanity sent immediately for a surgeon, who bled him four times in twenty-four hours. His medicine, prescribed by a physician, was to drink only milk-warm water, as much as he wanted, with a lemon squeezed into each draft, in a large teacup. The doctor attended him once every day, for two parloes, which is equal to an English shilling; and the honest surgeon, twice a-day, for one parlo. In seven days he recovered so as to breathe freely, when he went to wait on Mr. Mann, then envoy from England, now Sir Horatio. This noble gentleman received him very kindly, treated him most politely, and told him, He was in the wrong to come out so soon after so dangerous a disorder. The three other Italian gentlemen, who dined with us that day, were surprized at his rashness, and said, "No person, in the same illness is allowed by the physicians to appear out of his room for at least six months. " What they said was too true, for, after dinner, he went home, and fell into the severest relapse imaginable, as if he had been stabbed under the right breast, through to the blade-bone. He lay almost breathless, which obliged him again to lose blood twice more, and to continue drinking the same warm water with lemon juice, till he happily recovered. Mr. Mann’s politeness, with a general invitation to his table, made him pass three or four months pretty comfortably; when Mr. Panton wrote from Leghorn, that there was a Dutch ship from Amsterdam, which would sail for Scanderoon in three weeks’ time. This he told Mr. Mann, and returned to Leghorn; but was still in doubt to venture upon the passage, for fear of the Turks laying hold of him at Ateppo. He could find no other method; he had no friends to consult, or have recourse to; and seemed as if he was hanging in the air by a single thread, not knowing what would become of him; when, to his surprize, Mr. Thompson, an English gentleman in the naval service of the republic of Leghorn, met him in the Square, and told him, That the governor desired to speak to him; and hoped he would dine with him, if not otherwise engaged, as he never had the honour of seeing him in that town. The kind sound of this message made him to hope for some consoling event. Good Mr. Thompson said, "Come, let us first go to my house, if you have nothing to do. " Emin complied; and when he came there, found a French lady, Mr. Thompson’s wife, with a beautiful daughter by her first husband, very polite and hospitable. The natural curiosity of that wise nation made her very inquisitive concerning Emin’s case, who, without the least reserve, told his whole story; having been several months deprived of the company of his angelic female friends in old England. Mr. Thompson was interpreter; and Emin, like Othello the Moor of Venice, Mrs. Thomson hearing his tale like a tender mother; and the young lady, resembling the lovely Desdemona, drinking up each word with thirst, and, with tears in her eyes, pitying him, and fetching deep sighs; which extraordinary sensibility of a charming girt, hardly twelve years of age, was so affecting as to make both father and mother weep. Woe to Emin, if it had not been for the virtues of the fair sex, in whose chaste friendship he has experienced greater confidence, probity, and humanity, than in all his countrymen, and even in his own relations! And he adds, for that reason, the European ladies are treated like queens by their noble-hearted husbands; on the contrary, the Asiatic slaves use their wives like servant-maids or slave-girls! When he ended his tale, the good Mrs. Thompson desired him, with great politeness, to dine at their house as long as he staid at Leghorn.

The tragedy being over, Mr. Thompson and he went to the governor, who, without any ceremony or question, said to Emin; "Sir, though you have said nothing to us, yet we know very well all your motives, and your honourable design, from the first time to the last of your being in England, and at this place; we are well acquainted with every circumstance of the hardships you have undergone for the good of your country. Mr. Kinlock did very wrong, in respect to the merchants’ charge; and your English friends were too thoughtless of all your pains, in not procuring for you an empty protection which would have cost them nothing. Do not make yourself uneasy, I will give you an Imperial passport, seeing which, the Turks will not molest you. Mr. Kinlock acts as consul for this port as well as for the English Turkey Company. " He added, that he was sorry for that famous English nation, who are apt now and then to neglect a man of merit. At dinner, Mr. Thompson acted a second time as dragoman between Emin and the governor of Leghorn; who with cheerfulness expressed his satisfaction, finding the narrative exactly agreed with the intelligence he had before. The meal being closed he ordered his secretary to write a passport, which was translated by an Arab mula into Turkish, something in this form: "This is to certify, and to give notice, to all the Pashas or Governors in the kingdoms of the Othmans, that the bearer, Joseph Emin, an Armenian, native of the city of Hamadan in the kingdom of Persia, having been in our Imperial service of the republic of Leghorn, we have been pleased to invest him with our most august Imperial commission, to pass your dominions unmolested, into the mountains of Upper Armenia, to collect different kinds of flowers, or roots of various herbs, or such birds as we have not seen, or are not to be found in our climate; to send, or bring them with him, for our Imperial museum. Further, should he the said Joseph Emin, our most beloved faithful servant, stand in need of guards, to travel with more safety, you are to grant them to him without any objection, and even with respect and politeness; the same shall be considered as done to us. We have in like manner been pleased to grant, and have granted him a permission to shew this passport to our palioz Kinlock in Aleppo, to respect and to protect him in case of necessity. Given under our hand and seal, dated at Leghorn, in the year of our Lord Jesus Christ 1760, and in the month of October. "

The most humane governor said, "This pass will entirely indemnify and keep you from that people’s pretensions: whether you succeed in your plan, or not, we shall be very glad to hear from you and here is a letter likewise to Mr. Kinlock, who will receive you with politeness. Go on and prosper, without fear; put your trust in God, who will take better care of you than all mankind. "

Mr. Thompson, on Emin’s inquiry, informed him, that his excellency the governor was a prince of the blood of France, in the service of the German emperor. Sir John Evelyn’s grandson, his old school-fellow, the elder of the two brothers at Mr. Middleton’s academy, was then married to an English lady at Leghorn; and behaved, with his family, very hospitable to him during the time he staid there. His younger brother John, Emin’s friend, died of the small-pox, while at school in London. He omitted inserting this before, and, in gratitude, esteems it proper to be mentioned here.

Emin, a fortnight after, took leave of his friends at Leghorn, the governor, Mr. and Mrs. Thompson, her amiable daughter, Mr. and Mrs. Evelyn, who distinguished herself like the other ladies of her country, and gave Emin so large a cask when he went on board, that it served exactly every morning at breakfast for five persons, in a pleasant passage of thirty days; namely, Emin, the Dutch captain, his two mates, and a cabin-boy, and that with a voracious sea appetite, till they arrived at Scanderoon, the corner of the Mediterranean. According to the usual custom, he sent to acquaint Mr. Hay, an eminent merchant, to whom he had a letter of recommendation from his most celebrated friend Mrs. Montagu. After five or six days, he received an answer by an Armenian cowass (or a mule-driver), with four horses, which carried him, with his baggage, and the Dutch captain.

The first stage, after about four hours travelling, is at Baylong, on a high mountain, in the beginning of the heavy rains. There they alighted at a mountaineer’s house, called Chapan Oglu, a head of banditti, and a great robber; who very fortunately was not at home, which prevented their arms from being taken away. There was only his concealed lady, with a few slave-girls to attend. They slept very uncomfortably, and in the morning set out on their journey, with a stout fellow armed, belonging to the thief, on pretence to guard them. In the mean time the rain poured down like a deluge. After travelling four hours, when they arrived at the foot of a barren rocky mountain, their faithful guardian stopped in the road, demanding a brace of pistols which Emin had in his girdle-sash, kept dry under a fur coat and an English cloak, besides twenty zechins; threatening, otherwise, to kill both the captain and Emin. The author was advised by the Armenian not to speak Turkish; and, while the mule-driver stood as an interpreter between the Turk and the captain, Emin said nothing all the while, which made the Turk surprizingly mad. He said to the Armenian mule-driver, "What sort of a Frank is this? He is not in the least frightened like others. " He replied, "He does not understand the Frank language; he is an English mountaineer: you may see his hand is on his pistol, ready cocked under his cloak; he waits to receive your fire first, and, if you miss him, depend upon it he is sure of killing you; and I see your piece is as wet as dung, and his dry, loaded with English powder. " On which bloody argument, the Turk spurred his horse, and stood a great way back, saying "Now I see a true Englishman, of whom we have been told often, beating their enemies with a quarter of their number: do, tell him to give me some bukshish for coming so far with him, instead of twenty zechins. " Emin gave him a quarter of a piastre, equal to five annas. During this time, the Dutch captain thought he was attacked by the soul-taker Israfil, the angel of Mahomed; begging of the English mountaineer Emin, to give the devil any sum he demanded, for which he would pay double, so as to get rid of the fellow. The poor Dutchman was so frightened, that, when they came to Aleppo, he fell sick, and very narrowly escaped dying. Here ended the first chapter of his dangerous life.

In three days they reached that beautiful city, where Mr. Hay kindly received him. He waited on Mr. Kinlock the palioz; and, in a week’s time, bought three horses, hired three Armenian servants, and set out with a large caravan, just in the beginning of the winter, directly to the north of the continent, or Armenia. The rain continued: and, in seven or eight days, turned into snow; without ceasing for one hour. Emin had with him a pair of pocket compasses, and a map of Asia made at Paris, the gift of his good patron the duke of Northumberland. He encouraged his servants to leave the caravan, and with great difficulty they were persuaded at last; the poor fellows thought they should have been lost without a guide, not knowing he had the instruments of guidance, the fruits of European wisdom, in his pocket, the compass and the map. For the first two stages, when they were arrived with perfect exactness, they thought Emin was an angel in a human shape, more particularly seeing him in every village respected by the Turks; not that he shewed the pass, which he never made use of; but, as he understood the language, he shewed not the least glimpse of fear, like the poor Armenian merchants, but behaved in such a domineering way, that the Turks imagined he was some great Armenian, a favourite of the sultan, with a firman in his possession. They were obliged to be very complaisant and civil to him, as well as to his servants, who, poor creatures, never felt themselves so happy in their lives, nor travelled so freely, commanding over their own lords and masters. They travelled twenty-eight days in the rain or snow, over a great many mountains; when, before they entered a village called Yengy-coch, they saw the spears of the Turkish troops stuck up before each door, by guess about 500; these happened to be the broken part of the army against prince Solomon, the Emerate Georgian. Emin said to his men, "You may stay in that village, and rest for the night in an Armenian house; I will go on, lest those devils should be inquisitive about me. " Leaving them behind, he pushed his way through deep snow, and after three hours more travelling, came to another Armenian village called Jinis, just in the dusk of the evening. When the countrymen saw him mounted on a fine grey horse, they took him to be a Turkish trooper; but when he spoke to them in their own language, it made them very angry; they ran to their clubs, in order to beat him heartily, using menacing language, and asking, How he durst travel alone without a caravan, since he was a Christian? Emin, seeing this behaviour, and before they could begin their rough operation, spoke to them in the Turkish language, and threatened to have all the villagers put to the sword by the troops on march, who would be there the next morning. No sooner had they heard the sham Turk, whom they took to be a real one, than the poor creatures were frightened out of their senses, and a hundred of them came down upon their knees, begging for mercy, and promising a sum of money, if he would forgive them, and not think about it any more; at the same time expressing their fidelity to the Othmans, who are the only people able to travel alone, in the depth of winter, or at any season of the year.

Emin, pretending to be satisfied, promised faithfully to say nothing about it. Then alighting from his horse, he was conducted by them with respectful awe to the burgomaster’s warm house, where they killed a sheep, and took very great care of his horse, with trembling fear. When the pilou and cabat was ready for supper, Emin ordered all the people to go to their own houses, but granted the burgomaster and his brother the favour to remain in the room, to serve and keep him company. The victuals were laid, the table cloth upon the ground: that day being Wednesday, and a fast day, he seemed backward in eating; the Armenians thought his anger was not over, and that he wanted to be bribed; for that diabolical custom reigns among the Turkish troops, who, on their march, for one or two days halt in Armenian villages, where they grow sulky on purpose, neither eating themselves, nor letting their horses feed, till they exact a sum of money from the poor landlord. They were going to make a contribution, when Emin ordered them not to stir from his presence; and began to speak very familiarly to them, saying, "You, Christians, what is the reason of your objecting, if any of your countrymen should take a fancy to be a warrior? And why are you not free? Why have you not a sovereign of your own?" The answer they made was, "Sir, our liberty is in the next world; our king is Jesus Christ. " Emin said, "How came that about? Who told you so?" They answered "The Holy Fathers of the Church, who say, the Armenian nation has been subject to the Mahometans from the creation of the world, and must remain so till the day of resurrection; otherwise we could soon drive the Othmans out of our country. " Emin said, "Now, my friends, I will reveal a secret to you, if you will swear by the Holy Gospel, not to behave as you did before. " They said, "Yes, " and did swear. He said, "In the first place, take away the meat, for I am a Christian, and fast as well as you. " Then taking out of his pocket the Geographical History of Moses Khorinesis, he sent for a priest that could read a little, shewed the genealogy of the kings of the Armenians, and quoted our Saviour’s words to the Disciples, who asked him, Who should inherit the kingdom of God? He answered, "Whosoever shall leave behind him his father, mother, brother, and wife, lift up the cross, and follow me. " He then said, "You must have heard of the Christians of Frankestan, who, if they had listened to their priests, and had understood the Gospel in the manner in which our holy fathers have explained it to us, (which may God avert!) they would have been as great slaves to the Mahometans as we are now. The meaning of shouldering the cross, is the ensign which the brave soldiers carry against the Infidels, to fight and die under it; those being the true Christians, who can inherit the kingdom of God; and not they that lead a lazy cowardly life, like us, who are become cattle, devoured by wolves: witness David’s Psalm "Be not ye as the horse, or as the mule, which have no understanding, whose mouth must be held in with a bit and bridle. " For example, a rational being should not suffer himself to be a wilful slave to others; he ought even to be cautious not to be domineered over by his own fellow-christians; since God has created them all free alike, to be ruled or governed by good laws, with the same justice to the rich or to the poor; shewing that every man is honourable, otherwise he is no better than a beast: for example - Man that is in honour, and understandeth not, is like the beast that perisheth. "

Emin going on with this harangue, was interrupted by the secular priest, who cried out very load, "He is in the right; " and running out of the house, called all the people of the village, men, women, and children, who came all in a flock, and would ardently kiss Emin’s feet. He had not, like the holy fathers, ambition enough to let them, but received every one of them in his arms with equal affection, saluting them all without distinction. There was then seen a sort of joyfulness and lamentation mixed together, worthy to be described by any man of eloquence. The honest secular cried out, "My dear brethren, love and respect him; for he is the very man prophesied of by St. Nerses the Great, about six hundred and thirty years ago, who will be the instrument of delivering us from the hands of our oppressors, and of the enemies of our faith. "

The landlord, with several others, started at the priest, and said, "What was that you pronounced? or why are we kept in ignorance?" He said, "My dear people, what signifies pulling off shoes and stockings before we reach the bank of the rivulet; every thing in good time: besides, the holy prophecy is for 666 years to be fulfilled; during that period, we must continue as in subjection; 638 years are expired, there remain 28 years more to complete our persecution; then we shall become free; then no power in the world can oppress us. Our guest must have seen a great deal of the world, as we may judge by his conduct, as well as by his great father; you may be judges yourselves: you were frightened at first, when you imagined he was a Turk; for your harsh behaviour on his saluting you first in a Christian language, any person in his place, even myself who am a priest, would have received the contribution money you offered to give him, and would have gone his way; nor could any person have known the imposition, which you, through your terror, forced upon yourselves. I say, he is the very man; but he must wait, and go through various scenes of life twenty or thirty years more. I tell it to his face; it is not he that does these things, it is the great God above, who has protected him, and turns his heart which way he pleases, as he did to Joseph and David. " The people, in a goodnatured tone of voice, said to him, "Good father, you never before preached so well in your life to us. " He said, "Yes - I think myself inspired; particularly when I behold the countenance of our noble guest, who keeps silence till we make an end of our speech. "

In this happy way passed the time till two o’clock after midnight, when the congregation departed from Emin, and that with reluctance. The next morning the servants arrived safe, but with dreadful news. They said, "Sir, you have acted very prudently to leave us behind. After we halted, the Balugbashi (or colonel) of the Turkish cavalry sent for us, threatening to cut off our heads if we did not tell the truth; adding, the armed Gaur, your comrade, on a Turkish horse, who went through this place did not alight, nor took any notice of me; who is he? We answered that we knew nothing of him; we know so far, that he came from England, and hired us as servants: he minded neither the Pasha, nor the English Palioz-beg; for twenty-eight days we have been coming day and night; and we only hear the people, Turks and Christians, whispering, that he is the adopted son of the king of England, and has a white Firman from his august majesty the Sultan, Grand Signior of Osmanlus: that is all we know of our lord Emin; and he is a man, who seems never in his life to have dreamed fear; he made us leave the caravan against our will; we thought he would kill us, if we disobeyed. Upon our answer, the froth of his fury abated; he grew very cool, and ordered the Armenian master of the village to give us very good accommodation, and treat us with great hospitality, which is the natural disposition of our Armenian countrymen. But the poor villagers suffered much, paying unlawful contribution money to the Deirlish Bolukbashy and to his troopers; who said, You are Gavers as bad as Georgians, who have destroyed many thousands of us; therefore we will oppress you, to have on them. " Some boiled meat was then ordered and Emin, with his servants and the villagers, sat down together, and made a very hearty breakfast, eating enough to serve for a dinner.

Extracts from Correspondence, 1759-1760.

On Sept. 24. 1759, from "Wimple Street, Cav. Sq., " Edmund Burke wrote a long letter to Mrs. Montagu requesting her to use her influence to procure for him the Consulship of Madrid; in the course of the letter he says, referring to Emin, "I dwell with far more pleasure on my acknowledgments for what you have done for my friend in so obliging and genteel a manner. He has but just now succeeded after a world of delays, and no small opposition. He will always retain a very grateful sense of what you have done in his favour. "

November 5. 1760 Lord Lyttelton wrote to Mrs. Montagu assuring her that Emin, who had been reported murdered by the Turks, had got back safe to his father, then goes on to say, "I presume he will go to some Indian Nabob or Rajah, and then you may have the pleasure of tracing his marches on the banks of the Ganges, and over many regions where the Gorgeous East showers on her Kings Barbaric Pearls and Gold, and if he is successful large tribute of those pearls and gold will come to you. "

Dec. 14, 1760, after a Drawing room held by George III. Dr. Monsey to Mrs. Montagu, "Serenissima Principessa! There are no bounds to Pride, because an Earl is fallen in love with you, you must kiss a King, and just as he is on the brink of matrimony . . . . . Emin has miscarried in Persia, and so now you will let yourself down to the deluding hopes of being Queen of England. "

In this method he sowed the corn grain of true religion, and planted the admirable zeal of military spirit every where he travelled; and after two days journey more he arrived at Arzroom, one of the capital towns of the higher Armenia. The snow being very heavy, almost five feet deep, the Armenian merchant, upon whom he had bills for the money paid at Aleppo, could not advise him to proceed to the destined place. Against his will, he was obliged to take advice, and spent exactly thirty-two days in staying there. The secret of his design became common in everybody’s mouth, Armenians and Turks; the first terrified, the other grumbling; till one day a very handsome young Janizary came into the inn, or caravanserai, where he lodged in one of the chambers, and asked him, if he would lend his pack-horse for three or four days work, to bring saman (or chopped straw) from the country. This way he took to put him out of humour, and draw him into a formal scrape: but Emin managed his temper, made the handsome Janizary sit by the fire-side, called for coffee, and sweet-meats made of Grales treacle; ordering in the mean time, his own favourite grey horse to be saddled for the Turkish guest, and the pack-horse, with a servant to attend, to do the loading work; and if he chose, to keep them as a present; only desiring the party for the servant to be sent back, with good news of his health.

At this liberality the Janizary was astonished, got up, and swore by the head of Mahomet his prophet, that he would accept neither, after experiencing such politeness; saying, "I was sent by a great man to try your temper, and see what sort of a man you were. The Armenians say, you are a man come to free them; but (God forbid) had you behaved in the least stubbornly, the intention of my lord, as well as the rest of the Janizaries, was to have cut you in pieces. Since you have shewn that you have a brave and generous heart, and are a lover of us soldiers, nobody will molest you. I wish to God you may succeed, when we Musulman Janizaries may be an example, instead of serving under or bending our necks to the slavish Pashas, who in their youthful days, even from their childhood, have been used like women, and when grown up men, are created governors and Janizary Agular, to command and domineer over us brave fellows. Even our pretended Sultan is a slave, born of a slave, a Georgian handsome wench. " He then said "Alaha amanat alasen; " that is, May your kindness be deposited with God’s reward.

In the evening, about six o’clock, twenty Janizaries and a Kahwachi with a large pot full of coffee, were sent by Hajybeg their leader, with his compliments to Emin Armany Begy, or, the Lord Emin the Armenian; saying, "God send his peace to you; rest satisfied without molestation; while you continue in this town, you shall be esteemed equally with the light of our eyes; and when you depart, we pray God to prosper you; and may the gates of success be opened before your noble undertaking, Amen!" Emin drank a dish, treated the twenty stout fine fellows out of the same cup, and gave only half a piaster to the coffeeman, with return of compliments to Hajybeg their chief.

The reader will be pleased to know, that these brave fellows, to the number of several thousands, are Janizaries, natives of that city; jealous of the Aga, their colonel or Pasha, who are commissioned from the Porte to take the command, they are always in revolt; and at that time, very luckily for Emin, they had driven the governor and the colonel into the citadel, a place built in the middle of the town on purpose for such an occasion, where the Pashas might shelter themselves till the difference standing between them could be settled, otherwise Emin would have run a great risque of his life. In that town of Arzroom inhabited 12, 000 Armenian families; the Turks are double that number; and they observing the unexpected, uncommon, amicable correspondence between Emin and the Janizaries, were greatly surprized, imputing it to the attribute of God’s mercy that he passed indemnified through so many ravenous tygers and lions, repeating the following verse of the sacred Psalms to him: Thou shalt tread upon the lion and adder; the young lion and the dragon shalt thou trample under foot.

The snow began to melt away in the middle of April, when Emin took leave, of his friends, and got out for Bayazid, whence, with no less danger of robbers all the way, about twelve days journey, he arrived at Etchmiatzin, (that is to say, Christ descended, ) commonly called the Three Churches, a large monastery where the reverend Jacob Catholicus of the Armenians dwelt, who had that very year succeeded to the most glorious seat of his deceased ancestor. According to the established order, pilgrims were lodged and entertained there three days; and when the ceremony was over, Emin went out, took his quarters in another monastery called Gayanna, under the direction of bishop Aharon, an acquaintance of his grandfather Michael, not gratis, but for three rupees a week for lodging only. After inquiry, he heard, to his sorrow, the death of Avah Vardapit, (or monk Avah, ) among the five chiefs of Kharabakh, originally called Artzakh, that is to say, Green Garden; where, after a great fall of snow in winter, it melts away in twenty-four hours, on the meadows, so as to let the sheep graze upon them.

It will not be little amusing to give some account of this monk: - When he was but a young deacon in the monastery of Ganzasar, seeing the Lazguies, or the inroaders of Dagiston, making an excursion into that quarter of Armenia, enslaving the people, carrying off their cattle and flocks; his martial spirit could not bear the insolence of the enemy: he took up arms, headed a handful of brave veterans, and by dint of extraordinary courage and prudence, beat them in several pitched battles, and obtained many victories over the armies of some pretending princes of Persia after Nadir, when that empire went so topsey-turvey, that to this day it cannot be settled through their impenitent wickedness. In a word, he was acknowledged to be one of the greatest generals Armenia ever produced. Prince Heraclius was very fond of him; and some Mahometan khans were obliged to preserve his friendship by flattery, and great presents. By his horsemanship, and his dexterity in using the scymitar and fire-arms on horse-back or on foot, he never missed the mark. It was said, his amazing voice was stronger than that of Nadir Shah. In the beginning of an action, he used to sing a warlike song; and in that same tune, challenged the whole army of the enemy in single combat: he was so formidable, that none durst shew their heads out of the columns. But to Emin’s great misfortune, in the year 1760, he was killed by a mountainer sitting in ambush behind a rock. Then perished the only father and general of those five unworthy chiefs of Karabakh, who since that fate are become the vassals of a Musulman Taracama, which appellation signifies, the low class of Turkmans of the clan of Javan Shur. This mortifying discouragement disappointed Emin from proceeding to the place above-mentioned, where his intention was to join the monk, and to form a body of men; then go to prince Heraclius with a good grace, agreeably to his offered service by the letters sent five years before from England.

He lived in that melancholy situation from the first week of Lent, on his arrival at the Three Churches, to the last week on Good Wednesday, when he thought proper to go thence ten miles to the town of Traveen. The little money, about 200 chequins, which he saved from the expences of a fatiguing journey of almost three months, he delivered to an Armenian merchant, of whom he received a bill to be paid at Tiffliz, the capital of Georgia, where prince Heraclius was. On his coming back that very afternoon, his servant on the pack-horse, which being loaded with barley corn for the food of three horses, was too heavy to keep pace with him, told Emin to gallop on, lest the gate of the monastery should be fastened before he reached it; which regularity is observed exactly half an hour after sunset. Emin set his horse on a gentle trot, and came near another monastery on the right of a very smooth plain, within half a mile from his abode; and on the left was a flock of sheep, which the author did not conceive to be the property of Etmiatzin. The shepherds took him to be a Turk; and he took them to be Mahometans. They set a dozen large furious dogs before and behind to annoy him from going on; and attacked him so close as almost to pull him down from his horse. He bore the insult about five minutes, endeavouring, with great patience, to avoid mischief, till the poor beast could not move forward, and one of the dogs jumped up and fixed his teeth in the horse’s upper lip. This provoked him at last to shoot the dog with his pistol, the gift of his friend lord Bolingbroke; the rest ran away and cleared the passage; and the shepherds stood back threatening him in Turkish, as he had committed a murder in killing a valuable dog of the Three Churches. It happened very luckily both for Emin and for those saucy fellows, that at the time of firing the pistol, he broke the butt in two, and the sharp iron part ran almost through the palm of his right hand; by which he was so much disabled, that it intirely took away his strength, and prevented him fortunately from cutting down all six of them in a heat of passion; he not in the least imagining the stupid unchristian consequence of it.

He had hardly got into the court of the church, when there came in two of those fellows as spies, who finding by inquiry that the murderer was an Armenian, told him, in menacing language, that he should suffer for it. The next morning, which being Good Thursday, about eleven o’clock, the chairman of the patriarch Jacob sent the same ruffians. Who should they be but monks, who were the cause of the mischief. They said, in a domineering haughty way, "You are wanted!" When he went, he was carried up to the top of an oven, under which the heavenly bread of the holy monks is baked, a place half as big as the black-hole of Calcutta: the height of the ceiling is about six feet and a half, as hot as can be imagined. If the purgatory of the Christians should be as hot, the Lord have mercy upon miserable sinners! That place is built on purpose to confine transgressors; and he found sitting in it a monk in a profuse sweat, with another Armenian, a layman, in irons. The gaoler took one of the irons from his foot, and clapped it upon one of Emin’s, so that the left foot of each was locked in; and they had the singular advantage of speaking to one another without any body’s attempting to creep between them. Emin, in a natural way, began to inquire first of the holy monk the reason of his being put in that comfortable mansion? He did not at all like to answer the civil question; but was very ready to tell the crime of Emin’s fellow-prisoner; and said, "That man, whose foot is fast in iron with yours, Sir, is guilty of fornication: he is of Teffliz, an Armenian, married there; and he came hither, where he married again, his wife living in that city: and he is to have God knows how many hundred Busbands on the soles of his feet; for he is but a poor man, and has no money to pay to save himself from that severe punishment. As for your case, I can tell you, that you have committed a greater crime, equal to a murder, in presuming to kill Etmiatzin’s dog: you must pay very dear for it, otherwise you will receive the same chastisement. " Emin said, "It appears that you understand the law, but it is a pity you have not been cautious enough to preserve yourself from this purgatorial disgrace; and I dare say you have committed a still greater fault, which you are ashamed to confess. " He then laughed heartily, which made the people come out and interrupt their droll conversation. They silenced the monk, and told Emin that his coming into that hot hole was a good omen, and that he would one day or other become a great man; as they have had experience that every one of the monks who had been put there for some misdemeanor, in the end, became either a bishop or a patriarch. Emin concurred with them, saying, "You are in the right; for I feel the effects of it already: " as in reality he had been out of order five or six days before, that warm room made him perspire so as to be quite well. They said, they did not know who or what sort of pilgrim he was; but he must be possessed with great faith, since in so hot a situation he was happy, and could express content, not in the least like the other two hard-hearted prisoners, the one a priest, the other a fornicator, who had been there three weeks; and if in their minds they had repented, it was ten to one but God would have put mercy into the heart of Catholicus to relieve them from their disgraceful misery. In that very juncture, the patriarch coming from Iravan, sent immediately and took Emin out of prison, where he was kept but two hours. Had not his holiness been absent from his seat, Emin could never have been gratified with the curiosity of seeing that singular place of purification, the excessive heat of which has sublimed many into bishops and patriarchs.

On the ensuing Easter Sunday, which is kept by the Armenian Christians all over the country with great solemnity, the pilgrims, according to established custom, make presents to the patriarch of as many zechins as they can afford; some a hundred, some more, some less, agreeably to every one’s circumstances, with a sheep for an introduction to kiss his hand and obtain his benediction. Emin followed the example, bought a very large sheep for three rupees, and with a Turkish zechin in his hand, entered the room to present them, and on his knees went to kiss the patriarch’s hand. His holiness laid both his hands upon his head, and began to say some prayers, and blessed him, which continued almost half an hour. This extraordinary ceremony had never been seen before; and the jealousy of the surrounding bishops, monks, and deacons, made them burst out to a declaration in these very words: "May it please you, holy father, this man does not deserve so long a benediction, which your holiness is bestowing on him: the presents he has made are but trifling and insignificant; put that aside, his daring presumption in killing the faithful dog of the holy Etzmiatzin is no less than murder. " His holiness said, "Yes, I know that; but it is very well he has not killed half a dozen of you; and I am extremely sorry for your want of understanding, and more so for my chairman Petrus Vardapied (or the monk, ) who prefers a beast of prey to a lamb, and committed him to purnatoon (or the oven room). I must tell you, this man is not come here for pilgrimage; as I can see in his countenance that it is for something greater: what it is we do not know; but be assured, that he is the only faithful son of the church of Christ; he does not look like a merchant. I wish to God we had many like him. "

Emin kissed his hand a second time, and went out with double blessings from the holy patriarch. But instead of setting out to the North, and meeting the famous prince Heraclius of Georgia, considering the smallness of his finances, and his want of any recommendation from a man in power, which would be the means of losing his character, and rendering him contemptible in the eyes of his highness’s wicked subjects, he thought proper to take the money from the merchant, and return back to Aleppo, and thence to England, in order to take a better method, which shall be inserted hereafter.

Three days before his leaving that place, he committed one of the greatest faults, in composing a letter to prince Heraclius, that a mad-man in Bethlem could have imagined, and which hardly any one else in the world would have acknowledged, thus exposing his weakness to the public. Criminals at the bar, fearing a conviction, and hoping for mercy, sometimes confess their guilt; but Emin, from a sense of his duty, will give the genuine narrative of his insignificant life, with a sacred regard to truth alone. The purport of the letter was this:

To his High Mightiness Prince Heraclius of Georgia,

whom God preserve.

"May it please your Highness to hear the petition of your faithful servant. Five years ago I wrote a very long letter to your Highness from England; the palioz of the English, Mr. Shaw, at Basra, delivered it to an Armenian merchant, called Metchon of Teffliz, your subject, who has safely presented it to your hands. As I have not received the favour of your Highness’s answer in a period of so many years, it has discouraged me; and obliged me to return to the country, whence I have been coming to this place, with great danger and fatigue, crossing seas and travelling in depth of winter through the snow over the high mountains of Syria, Cardistan and Armenia. Part of an instruction of my father from Bengal I am bound in duty to inform your Highness of: He says, that upon condition you will be graciously pleased to confer on me the most singular honour of thinking me worthy to be made, by the order of the church of God, your Highness’s son-in-law, and will grant a certificate, signed and sealed by your Highness, and attested by two bishops or priests, he orders me to repair to your court; but if you consent not to this condition, he, my father Hovsep, has charged me not to venture entering your territories. I have shewn this letter to Zakaria the Armenian archbishop of your capital Teffliz, who will set out from this place in a few days, and has promised faithfully to deliver it into your Majesty’s glorious hands. Your faithful servant will remain in anxious hopes of receiving an answer to it by the way of Arzerum and Aleppo to England. I am, &c. &c. Dated at Etzmiatzin in the month of April 1760. "

After this mad act, he set out, with his servants, by the same route by which he came, without caring to join a caravan, though travelling alone was dangerous. When he arrived at Arzerum, Carapit Aga the Armenian chief, banker of the Grand Signior’s Vizir, begged to go as a guard with him as far as Cumercap, a village where the banker’s house and family dwelt, situated near the town of Aga, on the mountainous bank of the Euphrates, almost perpendicularly steep, within the first two stages from Arzerum. After travelling about two hours early in the morning, when the sun began to shine pleasantly over those beautiful hills of helpless Armenia, which seemed bewailing the loss of a true father, from the foot of an eminence he discovered at the top, a body of fifty-two Turkish horsemen with bright arms, and all their horses harnessed with silver. The distance between them was about three hundred yards: both parties were alarmed. The Turks, every one of them, dismounted, except their chief, just in the middle of the road, calling aloud to the Armenians to get out of the way. They were but six horsemen in all, with the two packhorses with wine and provision, heavily laden under the servants, and a bad horse belonging to the Armenian banker Carapit Aga. He, at the sight of the Turks, turned back frightened, and saying to himself, "O God: these are the very robbers who infested the road we have been told of at Arzerum. " The indiscreet Emin could not bear the pusillanimous behaviour of these servants of Mammon; he presented his piece, already cocked, threatening to fire at him if he offered to stir, and ordered his two armed servants to watch the man’s motions, lest he should be weak enough to flie away. He then pushed on his horse to the hill where the supposed robbers stood. In the mean time, Carapit finding the danger of running away was double, and of standing to face the enemy but one, was compelled to follow in haste with the servants. When Emin was within pistol-shot, he was just going to fire at the Aga, whose troops pointed their guns at him; but, instead of firing, dropped them, through a panic, upon the ground. Carapit cried out, "Hold your hand, for God’s sake! the gentleman is my particular acquaintance, named Aly Aga, one of the principal men of Arzerum. " Both parties then mixed amicably, without committing any further hostility. The Aga was so frightened, and looked so pale, that he could not answer the banker’s compliments, though repeated several times. His men asking Carapit who that mad Christian was? he answerd, "He is a mountaineer of Armenia, brought up from his infancy in war by the famous English nation. " To which they said, grumbling, "that is the reason he is not afraid: had he been an Othoman subject, he would not have behaved in so bold a manner. "

Several instances of the kind happened all the way to Aleppo, with which he thinks it not worth while to fill whole pages; but has the satisfaction to say, that the modern Turks are not the same with the ancient, who carried every thing before them, penetrated as far as Europe, and possessed the august throne of Constantine, to the inexpressible disgrace of Christians, whose horrible ecclesiastical quarrel alone, made them subservient, even to the meanest and most despicable Turks; whose piratical diabolical law never would suffer them to execute or punish a Mahomedan for shedding Christian blood. A dog has more humanity shewn to him than the first class of men, the fathers of the church; who, nevertheless, are their chief advocates, praying day and night to prolong the sovereignty of the Mahomedans; and Emin, wounded to the heart, often heard them cursing their own flocks, and extolling the ravenous wolves. With such unnatural and unmerciful bosom friends, how is it possible they should become free from slavery unless the laymen shake off the mean ambition of raising money to be deemed lords over the poor, by making presents to believers in Mahomed. If they would bestow a quarter of the money upon their own children, to give them a proper education, and enable them to distinguish a rational being from a brute animal, so as to multiply the number of good plants and pluck up the weeds, they will become a free nation.

When he had conducted the Armenian banker Carapit to Aga, the next morning he went one day’s journey with his servants to Mashker, an Armenian village on the confines of Syria, where he staid four months. The men of that place generally go to Aleppo and to Smyrna, where they enter into the service of European gentlemen. Their Aga, an Osmanlu Turk, inquiring the reason of Emin’s making so long a stay there, they pacified him by saying, there was a plague in the city of Aleppo, of which the Franks are afraid; and that obliged him to stay away till it was over. This eased the Turk of his well-founded jealousy; and he told the people to treat Emin politely, as he had seen the Franks in Constantinople, upon the same occasion, go and live in the country till the plague is over, where they are treated by the Musulmen with great civility. Here he did not fail to instil, as well as he could into the ears of the Christians, the principles of zeal and honour. Thence he went to Aleppo, and a week after to Scanderoon, where he embarked on board of an English Turkey ship, and in three months and a half arrived in the Channel, where he performed quarantine; and after that arrived in London: the whole journey from England to Etzmiatzin and back, lasted exactly thirteen months, which none of his noble friends would give credit to, except his princely patron the late duke of Northumberland, who stood by him like a tender father, having seen a letter from Dr. Patrick Russel, then at Aleppo, (now in Vizagapatam), to the merchants of the Turkey Company, to this effect: "Emin came hither, set out in the depth of winter, went to Armenia, and came back again like a comet, but did no damage to the world; for finding the Armenians equally few in numbers, and reduced thoroughly to slavery, he resolved to go among the Turkman clans, wild mountaineers, about Antioch and Scanderoon, and harangue them into a design to take possession of this city of Aleppo, and then proceed upon farther exploits. When he came hither, with his two servants, I and Mr. Hay his friend, with immense difficulty and many expostulations, dissuaded him from that daring dangerous undertaking. Who without money could effect so great a design? It was by his christianity chiefly that he was bent from it, which is greatly to his honour; his principle of true religion being predominant over his ambition, made him listen to us. Otherwise, any being in his stead, with such a favourable opportunity, having already paved the way to a promising field of action, would have persisted. The earl of Northumberland has great merit in finding out Emin by his lordship’s surprising him, and in patronising him who is really worthy of esteem from every man of spirit. If he had not hearkened to us, the consequence of his enterprize would unavoidably have been fatal to all the Christian subjects in the Othman empire; nor could the Europeans have been prevented from sharing their fate. "

This letter was unknown to Emin, till his lordship, a few days after, said to him, "How came you to have so many people about you? I know you had but 150 l when you went away. " He answered, he did not know how, but he wished the Armenians had been possessed of the same, or half the spirit of the Turkmans and Curds; he should not have had the mortification of returning to England, where his friends hardly believe that he went as far as Scanderoon. His lordship said, "Do not mind, my dear Emin; I will convince them all who have been your friends, and will continue their friendship towards you: " then, with the utmost tenderness, he advised him to stay in England, whether he chose to enter into his Majesty’s service, or to have a commission in the East India Company’s establishment. Emin would by no means be persuaded; and told his Grace lie would go over to Russia, if he would consent. He said, "The difficulty will be greater: Mr. Elton, an English gentleman, was in Nadir Shah’s service, and raised a jealousy in the Russian nation, who will be strongly against letting you pass through their territories. " The duke asked again, if he wanted money? made him accept a few guineas more, and paid also for his passage. Emin took leave, and went to his lodging: this was in April, 1761.


( May 5 1761 )

To the Wisdom of Europe Sister to the great King of Prussia excellent Mrs Montagu.


Caesar by force of Arms made the Romans acknowledge him their Lord, and Emperor; and you by the excellency of your Sense, Compassion, and Generosity, have gained the whole Affection of my Soul. And have made such, Impression upon it, by this favour of yours, dated the 21 st of the last Month, that you may realy command me as your Slave, and sale me to a perpeual Captivity afterward.

How I was overjoyed to see once more my dear dear, and dearest of all M rs Montagu’s Letter? that ever since I am hardly able to contain myself for Joy, & Happyness. I thank you ten Thowsands times, with an honest heart, for the Tenderness of your great Heart, and the kind assistance you offer, which there is no Occassion for. I want nothing at present, nor wish for anything else, but to see your real person when I might prostrate myself at your Feet, to satisfy my ever longing Heart, and to assure you that my not writing to you before now, was for a particular Reason which Doctor m onsey has perhaps already acquainted you with. I fear we shall stay in this Creek of Water longer than fourty days. It is vexation without remedy to think to be so near to one’s Friends, and not be able to enjoy them; - Tell my Lord Lytleton I insist upon his Lordships wormer Friendship, and not so cool as he hitherto has been. Let him not immitate the modern English, let him learn of you how to love his inchangeable friend Emin, for if he does not, I will him, does not signifie I deserve his Notie. Since I left Exeter two years ago, wrote from Italy, from Turky to his Lordship, but I never as much as had a Line from him. - Doctor m onsey will shew you a Letter of mine to a certain Lord, I entreat your excellencies oppinion thereon. I hope you take care of my dear D r as he has of your Health, and spared few ounces of the Stock of affection preserved for me. - Pray who is this Miss Pitts, a new one not that my miss Pitts, but another, that Doctor Monsey seems by his writing to be charmed by her Cleverness, and who is desireons to see me. I beg she will put a cuple of good Stones in her Pocket, lest she shou’d be terrified of seeing a black Tyger as Doctor calls me. However jocking apart she does me a great Honor, if it be pleased your Majesty after the Examination of her Beauty, she may be inlisted in the Book of Sarraigly. As for her Qualifications and Tallents, I doubt not but you have already by this time saved me that trouble. And further to consider whether your goodness will not be jalous of collecting so many precious Jewels together, on this Point I leave to your great Wisdom, and be scilence for the future. Pray make my kind Love to Misses Talbot, and learned Miss Carther, I reced your and their Letters of the last year in lesser Armenia. But alas I am told I have lost my dear Friend Lady Anson. There is a Shock for me, sufficient to move Mount Atlas. I pray God to preserve you & the rest of my Friends. I never knew what was the Loss of a Friend before, nor so much sensable of before her my heart is ready to brake for her, the only comfort I have, to hope that she is in y e happyness of Heaven, for she was realy an admirable Lady, and true Friend to Emin. I am almost in Tears for her I shall say no more about it. If you see my Lady Sophia remember me to her, my Respects to my Lord Bishop of Bangor, and my Love to their serophim Children, adieu, and believe

my dearest madam

Your ever Affectionate and obed t

gratefull humble Servant Emin.

5 th m ay 1761 in Handgate Creek

on board of the Ship Northumberland.

(Pray how is my brave Friend M r Montagu do? I wish him well I hope to have the Pleasure of seeing him again my compliments to him also to Mess rs Ettingfleet and Price. )

( On the back of the letter )


Mrs. Montagu.

Hill Street Berkly

Square lendon.