Tth Life and Adventures of Joseph Emin





[Letters previously written to Calcutta to Governor Drake, and to Emin’s father - His father’s reply -The Black Hole tragedy - Letter to Heraclius of Georgia, sent through Mr. Shaw, Resident at Basra. ]

He omitted saying before, that when he was first known to it the earl of Northumberland, and to his Royal Highness, he wrote four letters; one to governor Drake, one to his father; the third to the Armenians in Calcutta; the fourth to prince Heraclius of Georgia. He translated into English the three which were in Armenian, and shewed them to the duke of Cumberland his patron, lord Northumberland, the late Dr. Secker, archbishop of Canterbury, Mr. Payne, of the Direction, and to several noblemen. His Royal Highness sent for Mr. Payne, and told him the letters were to be sent to Bengal to the governor and council of Calcutta, who could summon all the Armenians there, with his father Joseph, and read them in the government-house.


A copy.

my own diction.


What induces me to trouble your Goodness, is that high Oppinion I have of the Generousity of all that belong to a Country, where I have found such Noble Friends who have not only supported me at the time of my destress, but have taken great pains to instruct me with their good, wise, and Noble Councells; they have also obtained for me the protection of his Royal Highness the Duke of Cumberland, & by his Order sent me to the Academy of Woolwich; which makes me happy every moment, when I reflect on my former Condition; of my Slavery for 4 Years successively. Was I to be sacraficed for them or for your Countrymen Good S r wou’d not be a sufficient Gratitude shewn in return to that Great Humanity I have received, since I have been so very happy, & so greatly blessed to be known to them; This, & many other Nobleness of theirs encouraged me to make you this Address, and to beg that you wou’d not think a Trouble to help an honest man who has not the Honour to be known to you.

The Design of this Letter is to entreat you wou’d use your endeavour, to prevail upon Armenian Merchants of your Settlement of Calcutta in Bengal, to write to Prince Heraclius in my Behalf, in order to be received into his Service; as it is mentioned in the Letter which I have wrote to him, inclosed here in Armenian Language, translated by me into English; being laid before his Royal Highness The Duke of Cumberland, & before My Lord Bishop of Oxford, The Earl of Northumberland my Patron, My Lord Cathcart, and before several worthy Gentlemen; & it is by his Royal Highness’s permission that I do send this Letter to Prince Heraclius, by which you will soon know how to help me, and how to direct the said Armenians of the said Settlement of Calcutta. In what manner, & in what method they are to proceed.

And that you will be pleased to let the Principle People of the Armenians peruse the Contents of the above mentioned Letter, to that Prince, that they may thoroughly understand before they begin theirs. I have wrote & inclosed here a Letter to the said Armenians, that they may be better convinced of the Matter. And have like manner the Honour of receiving a Letter of Recomendation the Directors of the East India Company to your Goodness, to certifye that what I have said above is true, and that it is not my Intention to impose upon Armenians, nor abuse your humanity; and that I am honest. Those Noble Friends whom I have been known to, & those whom I have been slave to will all say I am honest.

I am in great hopes they will not scruple to do me this favour, for it will cost them neither Money, nor much Trouble. Whereas a plain Letter signed by all the Armenians of Calcutta may be of Great Consequence to me. For even if I had no success in this, that the said Prince shou’d not accept of my Service, which I fear but little. Yet when I come to my Country, if they begin to make their false, foolish & Asiatick Pretences, I might then produce the Coppy of the said Armenian Merchants Letter, as their Testimony for my Honesty; to signify that I have from the Begining shewn a clear, & a good Heart; and that I have no Design neither against him, not against his Country, but the reverse. And as long as I have any Life in me I will endeavour to make it serviceable to him, and also towards the Good both of Religion, and my Country.

If you do me the Honour to serve me in this, (which I am assured you will with Pleasure, as you are an Englishman, must therefor resemble your Countrymen) Then I will take the Boldness from that Encouragement to ask for one favour more. I have a Father Good S r who has the Happyness to live under your Government, who is old, & worn away by much Grief caused by the Absent of his Only Son, & who cannot know of the Great Honour I have received in England, except you are so very good to shew some sign of it. That is the least Notice you will be pleased to take of him, will make him happy, & will be the Greatest Honour both to him, and to me, who am already loaded with Favours from the first, & best of your Countrymen, & that all my Life will be proud to own myself, I am


Your most obedient & obliged

humble Servant




A Copy.


M r Payne a director of the East India Company does me the honour to convey this Letter to you and will certifye the truth of what ever I say and that I am not altogether unworthy to receive the same favours from you that I have recd from him, and from many other of your Countrymen. My principle S r is founded upon truth, and I shall employ my last Breath in acknowledging the Honours I recd from your generous country.

The purpose of this Letter is to entreat you wou’d use your endeavour to forward the inclosed by some good Hand to P: H: of Georgia; it is a Letter adressed to him in the Armenian Language which I have translated into English in order that you may know the Contents of it having laid it before his Royal Highness the Duke of Cumberland my Protector the B. of Ox. my reverend instructor my Lord Northumland my Patron, my Lord Cathcart my Noble Friend and als before several worthy Gentlemen of this Kingdom and it is by his R: H: permision I send this Letter to that Prince.

I am sorry to trouble you, but I am assured you will delight like the rest of your Generous Countrymen to serve an Honest man who has not the Hon r to be known to you and who is with the utmost Gratitud



Honoured Father

The Son of Virtue is Bravery, and Bravery cannot be without Virtue; for as the Son proceedeth from the Father, so Bravery does from Virtue. More plainly to speak to you, O my Sweet Father! thou art a Virtuous man, and used to instruct me of Virtue while I was with you; and if I am thy true Son I am bound to be Brave, by which I may be worthy to be called thy Son, and also worthy of the name of that our great fore-Father Ameen. O my Father Joseph, the reason of my departure from thee is to obtain Bravery. What are thy Thoughts; ? dost thou think that I am come here to Learn only the e nglish Language? no, no, I am come to learn the Art of War; which is preferable to all the Arts upon the World; This Art is so precious, that always it is always spoken in the presence of Casers, and Kings; by this very Art, we are to give Battles against the persecutors, and enemies, of our Christian Nation, who stand Captives under their Hands. It is unexpressable the preciousness of this great Art, for without it, is impossible that our Religion shou’d shine; we shall allways be persecuted under our enemies, if we don’t strive to learn it; my Father those were the reasons of the departure of thine only Son (and when I used to mention them to thee instead of commending me for it thou didst allways insult me, and turn thy Countenance from me as if I was speaking of Treason; ) and now I would not tell thee so plainly and openly my mind, if I had not accidentaly met here a Nobleman who when he was acquainted with the Councel of my heart and the hardship which I underwent for the sake of my Nation, was surprized; loved me like Father, gave me Money, spoke of me to the Son of the King of England, and also to several Noblemen; again he asked we what was my Design that made me come away from my Father; and when I made answer and said, that I am come to learn the Art of War, still he liked me and conforted me; and said to me be contented; I will make interest for thee to the son of our King to give thee order that thou mayst go to the Place of Education, and Learn what thou desire where are all the Sons of Noblemen learning the Art of War; and you will learn the same with them. O Father, be glad! for God is with me; I am not come here to Learn Luxury, & Extravagancy; I am come to Obtain Worthyness, to learn Wisdom; to know the World, and be called a perfect Servant to my Sheeplike-Shepherdless Armenian Nation. Again know ye, that if you had made a present, or had spent 5 Thousand Rupees, you coud not be able to get me such great and Noble Friends; therefore it is almighty God, that has showered down upon me his infinite Mercy; for it is he that knows the Councell of my heart; and my Heart is into him, he is Father of all that trust in him; without him is nothing; and nothing can be done.

Michia! my Uncle, you seem to be very angry with me. My beloved, what were my Sins? why you have forgot me in that manner? why don’t you comfort me with a Philosophical Letter of yours? I have driven myself to Death for your sake; and instead of encouraging me, you think me a prodigal. I beleive, that you have heard of the wrath of my sweet Father, who had rejected me from being his Son; after his arrival on board of the Ship, he had sent a Letter to the Hand of my Shepherd David; and it was written in This manner; "Brother David, knowest thou so far, that there is no absolution for Ameen my Son, unless he is crucified his head downward for the sake of his Nation, as Apostle Peter was crucified; " thou seest that he was comparing such a Sinner as me to that Great Saint; but he will have patience to stay, that I might obtain Worthiness first; and then be crucified. he thought that he cou’d pronounce that word, crusified, with ease; but he did not imagine the dificulty of the Loss of his only Son. And after all those great Torments and hardships which I have been under, and am just begining to make his name and yours to shin, you all desire me to return; ignorant I came, and Ignorant I must go you are indebted to hearten me; I am contented to obtain an emty Letter either from thee or from my Father; even that you will not do. O my Compassionate Uncle! if I have sined before my Father, tell me what evil have I been culpable of, towards you? why you forsake me so: I know within myself, that it is only my Ruler David, who bears and weighs the Torments, and smarts from my Father; my Father cannot blame you; for at the time of my Desertion, you was at Seidapad, and my Ruler David at Calcutta; therefore let me die for him; let my Blood be under his Feet; it is true, that you are my Sheperds; but he is the only my Ruler and manager, my controller and my Comforter, my supporter and my teacher. D: I cry, I roar for to see David; but in vain; I cannot: and thou Mirzabec the Soul of my Soul embrace a Wild beastlike salute from the deepest part of my Heart.

My Ruler David, thine, fowan the 3 d of February from Hugley, arrived here the 14 th December 1755 by the Hand of John Mills to the hand of Stephanos Coggigian but I did not see the Person who brought thy Letter; I recd it from Stephanus. and it was a great Joy to me to obtain such fatherlike Letter from thee; and I was very thankfull to God, for having such a Ruler as thee in this World. Altho my sweet Father is a little angry with me; I did not submit to his Will; but I know within myself, that a fruitless Tree is always hatefull, and proud, to its planter or Master; but a Fruitfull Tree is dear and humble; its branches bend down to the ground; therefore, while I am fruitless, it is impossible for me to obtain humbleness; but when I am fruitfull it is natural then I must be humble. a second example; a valiant Warier, while he is in the battle he is obliged to appear proud, first among his Soliders, secondly against his enemys, and if he shoud obtain a Conquest over them, it is then natural to appear humble, if he is true Warier; these are my less understanding thoughts if your great Wisdom will approve of them.

I Last year two Letters by the hand of M r Davis to the hand of M r Maningham have sent, to give them to you. I am in hopes that you will perform what I have already desired in them; to write to M r Davis, to pay me the money deposited in his hand, and if not, let it be then your Pleasure. l et me tell you that I have no need for money here; but you will all repent for not beleiving your Son; so much is sufficient to your understanding, if you read this Letter with Care and Wisdom. But if you please to be friends with me, it is Debt upon you to do thus; first, to write to M r Davis, to pay me the 5 hundred Rupees; secondly, a Letter with great Thanks and with presents to this my Protector Nobleman, of whose name I shall mention in this Letter; The presents that you are to send are as folows: 3 Pieces of the finest Pulam of Radnagar; 2 Peices of the finest Mulmul that ever had been brought our to this Land; 2 Pieces of Madras red Handkerchiefs; and 2 Peices of Cusombzar silk hanker: 2 pieces of Douria; be ornomented if possible with Golden Thread at Daca; that they may so fine & worthy of the Possession of this great Noblemans, Lady; her great Spirit and generosity is higher than Language & who herself stooped down to take notice of me. This Nobleman is so great here as Maiar kan was in Persia; the things the more fine They are so much honour will they be first to you all; then to your Son. My Father, and my Sheperds Mirzabec and David be not afraid, I shall make return a Thousand to your once.

My Fathers now you will think, that I dont want to come to you; don’t you think, that I long for you? for my Longing is measureless; and it is so great, that I cannot explain it. Your Love is as hot in my Heart as fire; and for the sake of that Love, I have first made myself a mariner, and cleaned hogstye for almost six months; secondly, when I arrived here, I did serve to Stepan like a Captive. 3 after turning me out of his house, three Weeks I lived upon three half pens a Day. 4 I went to sell myself; but providence sent to me the son of my School Master who delivered me from being receptive. 5 I have lost one years Service; 6 I was a Load carrier or porter for two years; and paid 17 Pounds out of that Labourious and slavish Employment, to Stepan; which had he spent for me while I was with him; and at last from portership did arrive myself to Clerkship. there I have wrote about three Months, and absented from thence, I was again droven into my old distresses; without Money, without Friend, or any Body but Lord in heaven; untill one day this great man whom I have mentioned in this Letter, who had heard of my Character, sent me his Servant, and I was admited to him; and when I was come into his presence; after knowing my Councell, and the Love which is for you and for my Nation, he was surprized, and was saying to me, O Ameen! it is very hard to live in this Country without Friend & without Money (almost 4 years) therefore the Lord is with you; be contented, I will from this time provide and furnish you with all necessaries, and said he I will mediate to the son of our King, and after you have learned the Art of War, I will send you unto your Father, and Uncles: the Noble Lady comforted me likewise; do not despair; be glad, O Zealous for thy Country, Ameen! be not afraid, then My Fathers almighty and sa vast God it is, that hath put in my Heart to depart from you, and come here that I might be be able to serve my Country: therefore pray to God for me with a long mind, with trust & patience.

The name of this Nobleman is the Earl of Northumberld This is a Lord of a great Word with the King of this Land; Great men and Nobles all that know him love him; now it is 2 Weeks since he know me, I dine at his Palace, he has given me good deal of money, and Books, his Goodness and friendship is measureless; many times I dined with great men here through his Friendship it is to him that I am indebted for great strength & comfort I receive from a Nobleman called S r Charless Stanhope who is Father to me, He has made me known likewise to another Nobleman called my Lord Cathcart, who is a soldier and gave me much Encouragement. Once more be glad, as to what I have wrote to you performe it. The Loss of seven Years I shall repair in one Month. God Almighty will deliver us from all Difficulties, by ye in Health.

Emin’s father, in his next letter, after many patriarchal blessings, says, "My dear son, Governor Drake read all your four letters before the Armenians, wished me joy of your success, and made me forget all my anxiety; especially since the Armenians, who have reflected six years upon me there, are all surprized, and cannot help saying, God’s providence has been with your son. You may see their weakness, by their own answer; they testify you to be the real offspring of the ancient kings of Armenia, because you are successful; but if otherwise, they would have said, Who is he? or what is he? This is the way of all the Asiatics; who have ever shewn themselves friends to one in prosperity, and bitter enemies to those in adversity. A little while ago I could not show myself among them; now they pay me homage, as if you were a king, and myself a king’s father. In short, you did very right, not to return in the condition you went from this place; therefore go on and prosper in all your undertakings: remember, gratefully, that you are protected by the English; and I pray God, that their sovereignty and liberty may be protected as long as the world stands by the great Maker of it. The wicked Suja ul Dowlah came with a vast army, destroyed almost 400 innocent English gentlemen in one night in the Black Hole. Calcutta was overset by him: for my share, I have lost 16, 000 rupees, and all the Armenians in proportion; we are all become as poor as you were when you went from this place. I have written to Mr. Davis, to pay you the 500 rupees deposited in his hands. The glorious English army came with the fleet; re-took Calcutta, destroyed Chandernagore, and drove the Musulman army to the bosom of their prophet Mahomed; and I am in hopes that the whole kingdom, in a dozen years time, will be subdued under the blessed mild government of the English; which you used to prophecy, when you were here. Walk in the way of God, and be happy, without fear; put your trust in Him: who knows but He may one day or other set your countrymen free from the slavery of the unmerciful Mahomedans. By Mr. Drake’s express order, your letter, through the Armenians, was sent to Basra to Mr. Shaw, the English palioz; who, you may be assured, will take great care to send it to prince Heraclius at Tefliz: but I would not have you depend much upon him; by all accounts he is not inclined to reward a man of merit. Yet you have acted wisely in one great point; that the mountaineers, with all the rest of Armenia, will be informed, that you are in agitation to carry on an honest design. I make no doubt, it will be admired by them all, in the highest degree, provided the holy fathers of the most sacred church will not interfere; who, treading in the steps of ancient patriarchs, soften the minds of men into meekness, with a religious intention; preaching the doctrine of the Holy Gospel to them, but knocking martial spirit on the head; not looking far, like the brave Europeans; nor considering, that the bare-footed Arab will come, sword in hand, to take possession of them all. In our times, the Mahomedans are worse, and relaxed with effeminacy. "The holy fathers may probably concur with you, because your good intention is to free the Church first; but upon condition that you have a large sum of money, of which they seem to be more fond than the laymen; otherwise I am apt to imagine all your pains will prove in vain. There is one thing yet in your favour, that you have done your best to serve them; you will then rest satisfied with having raised the dead name of our family, which has been buried many years last past in the dust of obscurity. I pray God to bless and prosper thee. I remain, my dear son Emin, yours, " &c. &c.

The following is a translation from the Armenian of the author’s letter to Prince Heraclius, word for word, in the Asiatic style:

To the most splendid, most Christian King Heraclius of

Georgia and Armenia.

My King,

All things that have been made from the beginning of the world to this day, are by the will of God, according to the Testament. All things were made by him, and without him was not any thing made that was made: God created the heaven and the earth, the sea and the land; and it is he that made you king over two nations Armenians and Georgians. Glory be to God the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, that made you defender and protector of those christian nations, and of their faith; who have been many hundred years under the hands of Persian unbelievers, and are now delivered by the mighty hands of your Majesty. The same God will also, I hope, deliver those Christians who are under the hands of Othmans, for there is no resisting the almighty hand of God; and whosoever trust in him shall not be ashamed. It was he that delivered Israel, by the hand of the prophet Moses, out of the hands of Pharaoh; and fed them with manna, according to the holy text, which saith, men did eat the bread of angels. May the same God preserve and strengthen the wrist of your Majesty, to defend us from the encroachment of barbarians. Amen.

Again, having heard the same of your Majesty’s glorious conquest, by which you have possessed the two ancient kingdoms of Armenia and Georgia, and that they are at present under your Majesty’s protection; being desirous, from my soul, to offer your Majesty my service, I hope you will make no difficulty to accept it; as money is far from the desire of your Majesty’s servant, who wishes nothing but to serve him who has the rule over his nation for which I am here, I want nothing. I have a great friend here, and that great friend is my protector; and that protector is the son of the king of England. If it please your Majesty to instruct me of your will and pleasure, that I may petition this great prince, in order to obtain leave to come and serve you as an European officer, according to my low abilities, that I may teach your soldiers to fight like Europeans, who are very well known to your Majesty, who with a few overcome many.

Your Majesty has heard of the German nation, who, with no more than twenty thousand men, are able to give battle to a hundred thousand Mahomedans or Turks, who are enemies to the Christian nations. I would also acquaint your Majesty how it is, or by what means, that the European nations are such conquerors, and so brave warriors. It is a rule among them, that whoever is desirous to become a warrior, first is obliged to enter the house of exercise which they call here an academy, to learn or to study, four or five years, the art of war; that is to say, to learn the art of building strong castles, the like of which are not to be found in all Asia; and also, the art of managing great guns, in such a manner that none of our fortifications can stand before them for three days; likewise the manner of incamping with judgment, and the way of ranging the soldiers, so that they are like a wall of iron, not to be broken and, after having thoroughly completed his study in that art, he leaves the place, going and offering himself and his service to his prince, or king and country, and by long experience perfects himself in that great art. For the art of war here is not to be understood easily; it contains many things difficult to be known, and far preferable to the practice of Turks or Persians. See, O mighty King! it is not to much by strength of arms that these nations are called conquerors, as by wisdom and art. Here every thing is by art and wisdom, for without wisdom a nation is not a nation; and those who compose it are blind and unhappy, according to the Old Testament, which saith, God made the heaven and the earth by his infinite wisdom. I say, whosoever follows wisdom, he is beloved by God, since from Wisdom proceeds all manner of goodness: also a man is not mighty without wisdom, not wise without righteousness. The antient Romans, who were so great before our Saviour’s birth, gave laws and subdued all nations of the world. This was by art and wisdom, although they were heathens and idolaters but they were virtuous, and lived with good morals. Another example is the late glorious Peter the Great of Russia; who would not have been so great a warrior, and his country would not have been so blessed and flourishing, had not he came over hither to learn wisdom; who, when he was in Holland, served in a place of ship-building like one of the labourers, and humbled himself therein since whoever humbleth himself shall be exalted. And when he returned into his own country, he was full of all manner of wisdom, by which he made himself the father, as well as lord and king of his country. These are the things which have made the people of Europe conquerors, and esteemed wiser than all the nations upon the face of the earth. For among them are learned men, who study the way in which God has made all things according to nature, by which they are able to do things of great wonder and usefulness. They send persons likewise into every part of the world, at a great expence, to learn all things that are produced upon or under the earth, by which they are increased in wisdom and rules. Their cities are very great, their people are happy, not being afraid of famine and dangers; and they are under excellent laws, by which no man is suffered to do wrong to another, though he may be weak or poor. But this nation, this great and mighty nation, O my King! where I live, is not only great and wise, but also a destroyer of the devourers of mankind. I am surprized to see, that even the sheep in this in country rest in quiet, without the least fear of wolves. May the great God grant your Majesty’s subjects to follow their example, to grow wish and conquer under the wisdom and courage of your Majesty, to whom God grant long life, to trample your enemies like dust under your feet.

May it please your Majesty to know who your servant is, that raises his head to speak to you, and takes pains to know these things, with much labour for your Majesty’s service, to whom God grant victory - The name of your servant is Emin the son of Joseph the son of Michael, the son of Gregory, who is descended from Emin; who, in the day when Armenia was broken under the battle-ax of Shah Abbas, was minbashy in the service of that prince. After settling his family in the city of Hamadan, from him your Majesty’s servant descended, and he is called after his name, being born at Hamadan: but our captivity was grievous under the Persians, who since Mahometanism, as it is well known to your Majesty, are grown quite barbarians, not being so civilised so they were in ancient times, (according to the histories I have read in this blessed island, ) so that my father flew from Hamadan in the time of Shah Thamaz Khuli Khan into India, to a place called Calcutta, where the English have a fort and soldiers, and great trade, though their country is six months voyage from Bengal. There my father has been a merchant to this day, and would have me follow the same way of life; but I did not submit to him; for I inquired of my father, from my infancy, the reason why we were persecuted by infidels, and why we resided so contemptibly among lawless nations. They were afraid, to answer me, and my heart was grieved; and I had none to comfort me in my grief: for I said, the ants that creep upon the earth have a king, and we have not; and the nations of all countries deride and persecute us, saying, you are masterless, have no king of your own, and resemble the Jews, scattered on the face of the earth: you have no love for one another; you are without honour, and by the disunion of your nation, all nations insult you; you are contemptible, and without zeal; and you are as great lovers of money as the heathens were of their gods. I could not bear all these reflections. Whilst I groaned, but found none to heat the wounds which I bore on my heart, I observed watchfully the Europeans and their wise customs; their shipping, far better, both for sailing and for war, than the ships of the Indians: above all, the practice of their soldiers, who, if they were thousands of men, by one word of command from their officer, instantly, all together, move and act as if they were but one single man. Then I thought within myself, that it was God that had put in my heart to think on all things; therefore, I spoke not to my father, but was in hopes in my heart, that if I went to England, I should learn the art of war; and I was encouraged, for I then heard a little, but not much, of your Majesty’s name, until I came hither, where I learned that your Majesty was established in your kingdom, and had routed a great army of Persians. See, O my King! what a great thing wisdom is, by which this nation knows our country better than we do; and this nation is awake, but we are asleep. On board the ship I worked like a sailor; and afterwards when I came hither, I was so reduced, that I was forced, through hunger, to offer myself to sale upon the Exchange, to be sent into the new world. O, my king! do not pity me, even at the time when you hear, or see me sacrificed in your service; but pity those servants of Christ who stand in need of pity. But the omnipotent God saved me, by the hands of an English gentleman; and the same God, who heard the cryings of my heart, did inspire the heart of a generous nobleman, who is one of the pillars of the throne of England. He ordered me to write the counsel of my heart, and made me known to the son of the king of England, who sent me to a place of education, where I have learned, according to my ability, something of the art of war. My ambition is, to lay my little knowledge at the feet of your majesty, and to serve you with the best of my capacity; for know, my king, that, what is not built on knowledge, though it is very strong and lofty, is as if it were built upon sand. Therefore, my purpose is to go well instructed into your Majesty’s service; and to carry with me, men skilful in all things (if you give me an encouragement, ) to strengthen and polish your kingdom, like the kingdoms of Europe; for you have a good country, and command over many brave men; and if you would gather together the Armenians, a rich and trading people, who are scattered to the east and the west, to the north and to the south, under the protection of your majesty’s arms in your own country, no kingdom in the east would be like your kingdom for riches and glory. May the eternal God, the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, sharpen your scymitar upon all your enemies, and strengthen the wrist of your Majesty’s right hand, to protect our distressed nation, according to the wishes and labours of your servant Emin. "

The author received no answer to this letter, though he was assured by a Georgian, that the prince had his letter sent him by Mr. Shaw, with an Armenian from Basra.