Tth Life and Adventures of Joseph Emin




XVII. MAY, 1765.

[Emin, having 12, 000 men under him pretends to have formed a plan of attacking Georgians - Letter written by the faithless Marian and his reply - Sukias the monk again appears at Boragan with a fresh letter from Bishop Hovnan - Sets out with his thirty "wolf-like commanders" - Chachan, where he receives great kindness - Numbers of armed men come to Emin expecting to be led against Georgians, whilst he is privately meditating how to make fools of them - Slave market at Andia - Lezguis taking a child of six to be sold - Their only support the sale of slaves - Argues with his followers with no effect, finally dismisses them - Journeys on to Khunzakh - Mahomed Khan the nutzal and his wife - Her humanity contrasted with behaviour of a Roman Catholic priest on the death of a young Englishman - Nutzal gives Emin escort and passport - Sets out for Catukh - Ridiculous affair at the house of a Lezgui - Hajy Mustapha’s kindness to him. ]

Emin, at the latter end of May, made the list of his mountaineers, who were full twelve thousand men; and after holding an assembly at the place of rendezvous near the hot waters, three miles from Boragan, he thought proper to tell thirty-five of their chiefs only to keep in readiness, while the troops remained in their respective places for further orders; that when he, with those thirty-five commanders, should reach Avar, after five days march, and proceed from thence in four days to Georgia, very near half way between the two countries, to consult with Mahomed Khan the nutzal, (which, in the Avar language, means a king, ) he might then send back those chiefs to conduct the troops thither, and then fall at once upon the Georgians, while they were drinking wine with their mistresses. "This surprize, " he added, "will make the conquest easier, and will be the means of saving of you; whereas, in a pitched battle, for the first time, the fall of many brave fellows cannot be avoided. "

They had before sworn solemnly on the Alcoran, first, to acknowledge his superiority; secondly, never to contradict his order. When he ended, they all agreed, pulled off their caps, and marched away; being assured in their own minds that he was provoked, and would not be reconciled to Heraclius, though, in truth, he would not have changed one Georgian Christian for all the Mahometans in Asia, but continued a true Armenian.

Emin left them satisfied with their own opinion, and kept himself in readiness, when he received the last letter from the faithless Marian, sent by an Armenian gentleman, an ensign in the Russian service, a near relation of hers, on purpose to be delivered by his own hand. The purport of it was as follows:

"My dear Sir, and justly-displeased friend,

We have acted wrong in every respect, disdainfully, ungenerously, and imprudently, in not answering your kind interesting letter. To think of assigning reasons for our conduct, would be unnatural. We acknowledge our misbehaviour against you; but are in great hopes your humane heart will condescend to forgive us. Be persuaded and assured, that poor Marian is your own, and is perfectly convinced, she never can be happy without you; nor you, she is sure, without her. O, cruel Fate! what affliction hast thou brought on me! My poor grandmother sends her prayers and blessings to you, - she is as much afflicted as your poor Marian is unhappy. Should you not relent and come to her, be pleased to write a single line, that she may have the satisfaction at least of taking it to the grave with her. Adieu! I remain to lament my distracted situation till death. And am, " &c.

The Answer.

"My dear Marian,

I received your letter, acknowledging most honestly your fault, which I have passed over with all my soul: but am sorry to say, the balsam you now send, is come too late to cure the wounds of a heart that preferred you to all the world. For the future, I shall esteem you as my dear sister. Think that you have a brother going to die for his country’s cause. Make yourself easy; marry whom you please, and be happy. When you cannot avoid remembering, that no one else would have the same fortitude, or act with so much honour, as Emin has done in regard to you; recollect what a man you may regret the loss of - a true lover: - but content your mind with having found a brother, who will continue so all the days of his life. Adieu!"

Emin being clear of that engagement, the monk Suciaz, then collector for St. John the Baptist’s monastery, whom he had seen before in Astrakhan, arrived at Boragan, and told him, that bishop Hovnan, the head of that monastery, had in writing, ordered him (the monk Suciaz) to give Emin all the money collected in Russia from the Armenians there, being the sum of 646 tumans, equal to 12, 900 rupees. He said, he had refused before 600 zeckins at Tiffliz, brought by Melich Stephen, when he had but 200 rupees. Now he had an allowance of 100 pounds, sent by his patron the duke of Northumberland, which would be sufficient for the time: nor was he sure whether his chimerical plan would succeed or not. The sum of 646 tumans would have been in a manner an enemy in his bosom among those wild and almost savage Lazguis. He therefore bid the monk to keep the money to himself, or take it to the bishop; for he was chased like a tyger from place to place, not having a hole of his own to creep in, where he might have a little time to fetch breath. The monk agreed that he was in the right; but begged to make so free, as to lay before Emin his sentiments on the proposition he was going to make. He said, he would hear with pleasure, for the sake of his only friend bishop Hovnan. Then the monk began fawning and cringing, and said, "Sir, you have devoted yourself entirely to fall a sacrifice, with hearty zeal, for the cause of your countrymen, bidding farewel to the pleasures of the world; and having given many examples of purity, have overcome many temptations before, and now have refused a fair princess’s offer, with a great estate, who might make any one else happy. On the receipt of an answer from you, I saw her shedding tears of blood, and lamenting her thoughtless behaviour which made her lose her dear lover. The Armenians at Astrakhan, on the other hand, learning the reason of this, pitied her deplorable case, but admired your heroic attachment to her, and more particular your love for your country. From what I have been told by some merchants, you could live among that glorious people, the English, with respect and comfort: and I was an eye-witness, at Moscow, that the Russians would be very glad to receive you in their Imperial service: but to that you did not show the smallest inclination; and rather chose to leave them all behind, than break your undaunted resolution: nor will you accept this small sum of 646 tumans by the desire of my lord bishop Hovnan. After all, my intreaty is, that you will not marry any Mahometan prince’s daughter in the country of Dagistan, for fear of losing your Christian character. I know they will be pressing to fix you there. I know you will not renounce (God forbid!) your enlightened religion: - but what will be the consequence of such a marriage, when you have children, who, in course, must be brought up in the false Mahometan faith? What will you answer then before our Blessed Saviour? Therefore I beseech you to have compassion on your own conscience, - make me easy on that head, - and excuse me for making so bold with you. " Emin said, "In what manner can I give you assurance?" The monk said, "Swear, by the grave of St. John the Baptist, and the second martyrdom of St. Stephen. " Emin, with great willingness, immediately swore by both the holy saints: he only said to the monk, "Though you said so much before in my favour, yet I am sorry to find you so weak, as not to know better the strength of my faith, or my real character, who was born and baptised a Christian, and will die such, if the whole world were turned Mahometans. " He could not help adding, that he wished, with all his heart, that the monk, and all his sect, had been possessed of the tenth part of his faith in Jesus Christ. If the monk had foreseen the cutting answer Emin made, he would never have opened his lips. Thus ended the conversation between two Armenians, - one of them an ecclesiastic, the other a plain layman and a soldier.

To be brief, he bought a Circassian horse; the monk made him a present of another; a third he procured for his baggage; and having hired a Tartar servant, he set out with the thirty wolf-like commanders, and entered their country, Chachan, half a day’s journey from Boragan, when the Armenians in that place took for granted that he went, of his own accord, like a sheep to be slaughtered and devoured, not thinking that he was one of them; and that they behaved to him with a hundred times more tenderness and hospitality than the Georgians, or their princes: - nay, more than his own relations. He stayed a fortnight at that first stage, where Aly Sultan, the prince of Chachan, the head of all the twenty-nine, made his lady, with her two sisters, sit like taylors to make his cloaths, and fit them to his liking, with all the cheerfulness imaginable. Emin thought himself happy as if he had been in England, and began to forget all the uneasiness of his mind in Georgia. He marched back again with them to the hot waters of Boragan, for the purpose of bathing; and in the evening, lodged at Kachatur the Armenian’s house, where he stayed two days. This made them satisfied. They were astonished to see those wolves of chiefs standing as tame as lambs before him, and not sitting without his order.

After he had taken leave of his countrymen, he marched up to the mountains; it was a five days stage; but the chiefs begged him to make it fifteen days, by halting in every village three days; in which time they killed 1, 500 sheep and thirty oxen, and boiled them in large coppers for distilling arrack. These were the booty taken from the Armenians, or Georgians, in the open fields. There was, to be sure, such a multitude of armed people, as would have surprized any spectator, as numerous as if Abubaker, Omar, and Osman, were making their entry. All came to see Emin, kiss his hand, and obtain his blessings: but he could not be in the least vain of all the pomp, he being a Christian, and they Mahometans, who, all the time, wished success to him, and downfall to the Gavers, which made him quite unhappy: but he was obliged to put on a good countenance, and say, Amen! and make them believe, that they, having him at their head, could overset Georgia, not in the least suspecting that he was meditating how to make fools of them.

The reader cannot imagine the probability of all this; and supposes it rather an Arabian tale, than an authentic narrative, well knowing he had no money, and was not a Mahometan, to gain their affection: but he must consider the disposition of those terrible savages. The leaders of those excursions have been always Georgians, from the highest degree to the meanest of subjects; who, being oppressed by tyrannical princes or masters, went over to them, and being chosen by them as their guides, marching at the head of thousands, carried fire and sword through the country; while the Georgians were sitting in banquet-houses, eating and drinking like beasts. Thus they destroyed their opposers without mercy; drove the defenceless into captivity, reserving the sturdy and the beautiful infants to themselves, whom they circumcised, and adopted as their own children; but sold the rest to the Turks and Persians. Therefore, there can be no great merit in Emin, in being respected or caressed so much by them, when the head men of them had seen him with their own eyes, in Russia, taken much notice of; and had been fighting against him in several skirmishes when in Georgia.

A day before his arrival at the capital of Avar called Khunzakh, he came upon a high eminence to Andia, a large free town, where a market of slaves is held: generally the Crim Tartar merchants buy them. Here he, with his thirty devilish commanders, met five mountaineer Lazguis, who had a Georgian little girl, about six years of age, with a pair of brogues on her delicate feet, running before them, like a little lamb, to the market to be sold. Emin seeing that object of pity, found his distracted heart splitting, to observe the condition of the innocent creature. He could no longer help shedding tears. The men began to handle her, and pull her about, to see how she was made, in such a barbarous manner as to put Emin almost out of patience. He told them, if they wanted to buy the child, they ought not to make a football of her; that they were worse than the brute beasts to behave in that manner. They all turned round at once; but Aly Sultan exclaimed, "O, Sir! if you are possessed with a heart so merciful as to be affected for one slave girl, how can your eyes bear to see many thousands of them in that condition? You have no treasure to pay your troops, - how are we to be paid? - We must pay ourselves in that way, to obey your orders; otherwise, you must not expect that we will fight for you for nothing! Since you shew so much humanity toward a single subject of your enemy’s, how much more must you have for your own countrymen, who make half of the subjects of that Caffer Heraclius? Answer our just question; or give us permission to return to our place. "

Emin said, at the instant, "I have no occasion for you: - go your ways! if God will prosper me with success, and make me master of money, I shall be glad then to call you into my service, and treat you like men, not like tygers or wolves, to let you prey upon human bodies: - the former is the doctrine of our Blessed Saviour Jesus Christ; the latter is that of your prophet Mahomed. Now, brave fellows! which of the two is the best?" They said, "That of Christ: but our Molaks tell us, that the Georgians are Caffers, whose persons and properties are made lawful prey to Musulmen. " Emin said, "When the devil tells mankind to run after wickedness, are they to follow that evil one’s advice?" They answered, "No; but what shall we do to live?" He said; "Go, till your lands; live by the sweat of your brows: - God is the creator of all, not of the Musulmen only: the beginning of your own prayers tells you the same; but you are blinded by your own learned men, who are wolves in sheeps clothing. I ask you, if you should like to have your children torn away out of your arms, and your wives defiled before your eyes by the Russians? Or, do you think that they can do it, or not?" They said, "Yes; very easily. " He said, "On the contrary, they defended the people of Dagistan against Nadir Shah, by supplying them with ammunition, which saved them from becoming slaves to the Persians. You have forgot all that. Instead of being grateful, you go and take the Georgians and Armenians into slavery, who are their fellow Christians; (they still bore this with patience; ) and you will not leave your wild ways, because the deceitful disciples of the impostor Mahomed forbid you!" In this manner he reasoned almost an hour and an half; they hanging their heads down, and saying nothing; but, according to their custom, kissed his hands, begging him to pray for them, and to remember that they were always under his command, whenever he should have occasion to send for them. They then went away with as much content, as if each of them had obtained a beautiful Georgian damsel.

Ali Sultan, the prince of Chachan, never opened his lips; he was a pensioner of the Russian government, but as great a rogue as ever trod on ground. This man hearing at Boragan that Emin had a little money, was all the way making free with pretended familiarity, handling sometimes his bosom-pocket, sometimes his side-pocket, as if he wanted some snuff that is usually carried in a leather bag. Emin, with seeming indifference, never took it amiss; but knowing the intention of Ali Sultan, took care to remove his money from place to place about him, so as to make the sharper prince believe that he had none, and mortified him to the very soul by now and then taking a zeckin out of his pocket, and giving it his servant to buy some clothes: he took for granted that Emin had the philosopher’s stone, and needed only to rub his thumb against his finger, to produce gold whenever he wanted it.

The next day they arrived at Khunzakh, where he was received with great politeness by Mahomed Khan, the nutzal, or king, to whom this Ali Sultan was a relation. After some days, he well learned the temper of the nutzal, and that he was not a great friend of Ali; for he said, that Ali was a very treacherous false man, although he was a relation of his; that he often behaved not like a man of honour, and several times brought a party of Russian Cossacks, and drove away the flocks of his own clan, for the sake of his paltry pension of twenty tumans a year, which is no more than 400 rupees; and in gratitude for Emin’s goodness, who pacified his own people (meaning those 12, 000 men who were going to cut him in pieces, when at Boragan), from that place to this he had been studying to find out where his money was, forgetting that he had sworn fidelity to him upon the Alkoran. He added, "That man (meaning Ali Sultan) is neither a true Musulman nor a Christian; he is a kizelbah (or red-head); " meaning a Persian heretic.

Ali Sultan finding Emin in a secure place, and having made no hand of him with all his cunning, came to take leave. Emin said, "as you are returning to your country Chachan, I well know you will go thence to Boragan, where you learned that I had a sum of money, and that you, a treacherous comrade, could not get it from me, after trying all your cunning and base arts! Understand me; you will see they were satisfied in their minds, that their countryman Emin is not the person they imagined would have been deceived by Ali Sultan, the prince of Chachan, whom he made no more than a tool of, all the way to Khunzakh, the capital of Avar. " He added, "When you go to Kizlar, make my compliments to the general; thank him for his good opinion of my principles, without having seen me!" This reprimanding speech he made in the natzal’s presence, who approved of it with expressions of great satisfaction; and Ali went away dashed with chagrin.

Emin, with his servant, named Mortazaly, stayed as guests with Mahomed Khan the nutzal, where he passed four months as happy as if he had been in Europe with a fortune of 5000l. a-year. The behaviour of that prince had never the appearance of a Mahomedan, except when he sat down to prayers. The princess named Bakher, his first wife, was the daughter of Utzmy Shamkhall, another great prince of the N. E. of Dagestan. Though she out of modesty concealed herself, yet her politeness and hospitality cannot be expressed, she sent every day her lady of the chamber, the wife of the cazy, to ask how Emin did; and besides the three usual meals, she took care he should have three collations of fruit, some growing there, and some sent to them from the distance of five or six days journey on that high mountain. In regard to her humanity, they had a Georgian dumb slave, who one day went to wash himself in a pond, and was unfortunately drowned: she lamented much, gave him a very decent burial, ordered six sheep to be killed, called poor people to dine, and pray for his soul, and was several days after in great concern for the accident. Emin sent into the haram, and begged of her to know if such liberality for a Christian was allowed by the Mahomedan laws? She sent for answer, that humanity was the law of Nature, and greater than any law made by men in power. As a contrast to this, Emin remembers an Englishman named Gray, who died at a Roman Catholic priest’s quarters, which was in the church. The black-hearted fellow, unknown to Emin, ordered two men to take the corpse of the unfortunate young fellow by the legs, and throw it like a dog into a hole. Gray paid him extraordinarily well for his board; yet the rigid monk did not so much as say, Dust thou wast, to dust thou shalt return!

Both the nutzal and his lady giving hints, that if Emin had an inclination to command, he should have in a few days as many thousand fighting men as he pleased; he said, he was not a turn-coat Georgian, to be actuated by false ambition, and ruin his country for nothing; but that he should be very glad to have about twenty men to go with him as far as Catukh, a village four days journey off, from whence it was a journey of about three or four days to the mountains of Armenia, called Karabag: that was all he wished for: he rather chose to die, than see an Armenian walk lame. This very sentiment made them more fond of him than before; and they said, "A man who is true to his own country, will be so to his friends; but he that will fight against, betray, or hate it, is a caffer, having neither honour nor principles, like the Georgians, who ruin their country with their own hands, by shewing us Lazguis the roads, passes, and every corner of it. "

Here Emin, if a digression may be excused, cannot help confessing, that he repented of having taken an oath to the Suciaz Armenian monk in Boragan, that he would not marry among the Lazguis, for both the prince and princess offered one of their three daughters to him in marriage; but when he confessed the truth, that he had made a vow by the grave of St. John, (whom they call Son of Zachariah Yahya Pegumber the prophet, ) they still admired Emin’s honesty, and caressed him more and more. Had they been Christians, he could have lived and died there very happily, finding among them so much politeness, hospitality, simplicity, and true liberty, which might have saved him many cringing postures at great men’s doors for a livelihood. The nutzal would have given him land enough, with men for agriculture, oxen to till the ground, and flocks of sheep in abundance: the climate is wholesome, and, with a sober wife, he might have enjoyed it a hundred years, and with a good conscience have died contented, without being envied by the ambitious part of mankind, nor would his poor ears have been plagued by the appellation of Prince; for let him move on ever so hardly, the world will cry out, Emin wanted to be king; - and he might have been one, if he had sold his conscience, and abandoned humanity! - Let the world see his heart in this imperfect book; his mind is as humble as dust, but his ambition has always been to see his countrymen free, which he hopes to be the wish of every honest man.

When he had well established a friendship with the nutzal, he desired him to order some of the people to accompany him down as far as Charr, or to the Catukh village, four days journey to the lower woody part of Dagistan, originally belonging to the Georgians, a very plentiful place, producing all kinds of fruit. They favoured him, besides twenty - five men, with a letter to that republic, in this form:

"The bearer, Emin, an Armenian Christian, having been taken proper notice of by the carols of Frankistan, the Russian pudeshah’s vizier recommended him in a letter to prince Heraclius. That caffer, instead of rewarding his services, has turned him out of the country. He is returning over the Oss (or Caucasian mountains), and going through Circassia to the village of Boragan. The Michkiz nation, in the woody province of Chachan, coming to him for the sake of booty, several thousands of them offered their services to him, in order to march with him to the desolation of Georgia; but he being an Armenian, and not in the least inclined to their enterprize, dismissed them, making Ali Sultan, my relation, his guide, as far as this place; where we received him according to the law of hospitality ordained by Abraham, the first of all prophets. The truth and honesty of his heart made us love, respect, and caress him, as much as if he had been born with us of one mother. We cannot doubt that the Jamahat of Charr, or Esembly, will receive him in as friendly a manner as we have done; and that you must not expect him to go with you, inroading or making incursions into Georgia; for he is an Armenian, true to his faith; and not a Georgian, false and distrustful! But if there should be any expedition going on against the Refzys, he will have no objection. Given under my hand and seal unclosed, at the city of Khanzakh, in the kingdom of Avar. "

This letter served him as a passport all the way, through different republics in the mountains, not subject to any prince but by their tenure, the nutzal can call upon them when their service is wanted against any power; that is to say, Turks, Persians, Georgians, and so forth.

After travelling two days, about two in the afternoon, as he was marching with his twenty-five men through a large meadow, and passing by a village on the left called Cutakh, a Lazgui named Mohamed, observing that Emin’s dress was not like the rest, and perceiving that he was an Armenian, came up, and gently laying hold of the reins of his horse, carried him to his own house, very happy that he had a rich booty; securing also his led and pack horses. About 500 villagers, and as many women, making a great throng about him, sat down, according to custom, to divide the booty. The head man of the nutzal’s people told them very coolly, that he was certainly an Armenian, but not such as they thought. They said, that Dagistan was a sacred country; and that by their law no Christian could go through it, unless he was chained as a slave for sale; so that all the gentleman’s reasoning with them had no effect. He therefore left Emin among them, and went to the elders of other villages. He was gone about an hour; during which time the women, old and young, sat round him, as if he was dead, with a musical voice lamenting his situation, and bewailing his father and mother, thinking how unhappy they would be to hear their son was made a slave; tears running down their cheeks, as if they had lost a son or a brother; little imagining the charge of burial, and the funeral dinner, would cost Mahomed his whole winter’s provision; for he, discerning Emin’s friend, at the head of 600 armed men, coming down from the brow of an adjoining hill, directly drove away both men and women, and, with his gigantic mother, fell down upon their knees, and begged Emin, the dead man, to save their house, by saying, that he was brought in as a guest, not as a slave. Emin consented to say so; and when they came and asked him, how he was used by that fellow, Mahomed? he said, "As a guest. " They said, "That word saved his house from being pulled down. " The nutzal’s letter was read again to them; they all shook hands with Emin; and it was very fortunate the landlord returned his things before they came there, otherwise the house would not have escaped their fury, for his transgression against the law of hospitality, in Dagistan particularly, as he made bold to treat in that rough manner the most beloved friend of the nutzal. He ordered the fellow to bring victuals, and they, like so many wolves, devoured every morsel of dried beef and mutton, and obliged him to give Emin’s people seven large sheep, which served them three days on the way.

When they came to Catukh, it was Wednesday, and the nutzal’s general letter was read by Molah Musa, in the assembly at the Mesgid, on Friday after prayers. All of them made Emin welcome, and were very glad he had escaped from the hands of that caffer Heraclius. Hajy Mustapha, at whose house he alighted, told him, that as it was his wish, according to the purport of the letter from the nutzal, to go to Armenia, he would conduct him to Talla, an hour’s journey from that place, where there were many Armenian merchants lying in a caravanserai, some of whom, for their own affairs, would soon depart, when Emin might join them in time to be in the same caravan with them. Emin, very glad of that intelligence, set out with Hajy Mustapha, and his servant Mortazaly Ali, and arrived at the place called Talla, where the hajy, according to the custom of the Lazguis, took and introduced him as a guest to another in the village of Talla. Just as he entered the court-yard of the house, there came out two Turkish women, wives to the landlord, like mad dogs, scolding Mustapha furiously for bringing his guests always to their house. Hajy Mustapha ran away; and the master of the house begged Emin to alight for half an hour, till his son returned. Just at that time the son came, and took Emin and his servant to the before-mentioned caravanserai, about 800 yards from the house. Emin was flattered with the hopes of going among his fellow Christians, not knowing that their poisonous words would shoot through his heart. When he reached the gates of the hellish mansion, every one of them came and stood at the entry, looking as pale as death; and, instead of speaking to him, told the young Lazgui, they had no room to spare. "Take him, " said they, "to your house again, he shall by no means enter here; he is your king; we have nothing to say to him. "

The poor young man, surprized at their behaviour, and afflicted at Emin’s situation, said, with a very meek voice, "Never mind, Sir, God is great; let us go to our house again. " No sooner had they turned their horses heads, than the Jews began to murmur like cowardly dogs standing upon the terrace of a house to bark at passengers. Emin was very nearly provoked to turn and fire at them; for if he had killed ever so many, nobody would have restrained him; the young man his companion would very willingly have joined him; and the Lazguis would have been very glad of it, since among them, to kill an Armenian is no more regarded, than to cut a cucumber with a knife. Yet he bore with great patience all their satirical insolent expressions. Had not his English education helped to prevent him, he might have behaved according to their deserts: he only comforted himself with thinking, that they were all Georgians, not genuine Armenians. The Lazgui boy, very much resembling an English gentleman, asked him on the way to the house, how he could be so fond of so worthless a people? And added, "Is that all the reward of your pains, and dangerous travels through the world, particularly in Dagistan, where the birds cannot fly in the air without being sensible of terror; yet there the Lazguis with a good heart received you, elected you to rule over them as a sovereign, and are always ready to follow you. This exasperating affront is inexcusable; pardon me, Sir; you will do nothing at last with that conscience and humanity of yours: remember me, I am but nineteen years of age, but I predict, that one day you will find all your trouble to have been vain. " On entering the courtyard, the exhortation of the young gentleman ended.

Emin slept there that night, and the next morning went back to Catukh, to Hajy Mustapha’s house, but found that he was absent. There were two Armenians of the same cast lodging in one of the rooms annexed to the house, under the hajy’s protection, carrying on a sort of trade as shopkeepers, with a capital of about two thousand rupees, but as insolent as the richest of them. These men set the landlady on to turn Emin out of the house: the messenger between the two parties was Emin’s servant Mortazaly. At last the servant was told by the hajy’s wife, that his own countrymen, the Armenians, were the reason of her pressing his master to go out of the house; that since those two shopkeepers were of some profit to the hajy, she was obliged through them to give Emin warning; and she concluded with saying, "Tell him to do as he pleases. " No sooner had he heard that last message, than he placed his baggage under a large walnut-tree, to which was twisted a vine, with great bunches of grapes hanging down over his head by the side of a cool brook; and he let loose his horses to graze in the very court-yard, which was like a fine garden, threatening the paultry shopkeepers to punish them for their baseness. They, through fear, killed two large fowls, made a pilau, and invited him to supper. The next day the hajy came back; and having learned what had passed the day before, was extremely angry. Had not Emin interfered, and with great difficulty quieted him, he was really going to cut off, first his termagant wife’s head, and then those of the thoughtless Armenian shopkeepers.

The hajy took Emin to his country-seat, three miles off, where his second wife was in the farm, with cattle and horses. He lodged him in a little tower, just big enough for five or six men, and put his horses in a stable, in the midst of the very people against whom he had fought near Tifflis, wounding thirteen of them, every one of whom was dead. They all came to see him, and instead of revenging themselves, like other Mahomedans, they respected and loved him, expressing wonder how his few lads could stand so many hours against so many veterans. They, at Emin’s expence, took great care to bake, boil, sew, and wash for him, with as much cheerfulness as he could wish; nor had he the least apprehension in regard of what had passed before. The servant that came with him in hopes of procuring a slave, finding his inclination was not in the least bent to go marauding to Georgia, with several bands who offered at different times to put themselves under his command, asked leave to go away to his own country, which was granted. As there was no agreement for wages, Emin made him a present of his bay horse for three months service: he then went away with as much content as if he had procured a Georgian slave. Emin thought proper to stay under Hajy Mustapha’s protection at Catukh, to hear some news from Armenia and Georgia; and in the mean time to derive some advantage from gaining the affection of the people of that place, which was ten hours journey to Kissikh, the frontier of Cakhet, and four days to Carabagh, the north of Armenia.