Tth Life and Adventures of Joseph Emin




XII. 1762-1763.

[Proposal that Emin should enter Russian service - Firm in his desire to help his own country - Keith procures letter to Heraclius from Vorontsov - Over the snow to Moscow - to Astrakhan - Death of Peter III. – Kizlar - Armenian and Tartar entry excites suspicion of Russian general - Objects to passport - Emin returns to Astrakhan - Rentil, a Swede - Moscow again - Government there for coronation of Catherine - An unknown friend - Interview with Vorontsov and Galitsin -Consideration of Peter the Great for Armenians - Promised passport - Pleurisy again - Offered command of Armenians – Refuses - Penniless again - Lord Buckingham’s nerves - Mr. Boad’s help – "Damn all great men!" - Kindness of Englishmen unwillingly contrasted with behaviour of Armenians – "A soldier must speak the truth!"]

After the death of the empress and king Tahmuras, Peter II. succeeded to the throne. His Excellency Mr. Keith, Dr. Mounsey, and Dr. Dumaresque, proposed to Emin to enter into the Russian service, since the new emperor was very fond of soldiers, and it would be of consequence to him; but Emin would, on no consideration, consent to become a turncoat, still continuing firm in his resolution to proceed for Georgia and Armenia. His Excellency approved his sentiment, and procured a pass for him, with a letter of strong recommendation from the chancellor count Worronzoff, his friend, to prince Heraclius, written in Russian, and translated by Dumaresque into English.

The purport of it was as follows:

"To Prince Heraclius.


The bearer of this letter, Joseph Emin, an Armenian Christian, native of the city of Hamadan, in the kingdom of Persia, educated in England, and brought up in the art of war, made some campaigns in Germany, where his conduct merited him the notice and friendship of that renowned nation; and there, hearing your name extolled as one of the greatest captains and officers in your situation, inclined him to come and enter himself into your service. His noble friends in London, and our Imperial envoy prince Gallitzin thought proper to favour him with letters, recommending him strongly to our notice and protection. When he came hither with those credentials, we judged it best to present him to your late father king Tahmuras, who, seeing his conduct, took great notice of him, and promised to take him to Georgia before his death. Almost in his last will, he told him to go to you without fail or delay. To this he readily consented. In case you should not be pleased with him, or disagree with him, it is our pleasure that you let him return back to us in a most satisfactory manner, since he may be employed by us with great pleasure, in our august Imperial service: his character and good conduct being better known to us. Given under my hand, count Worronzoff, high chancellor of the empire of Russia, " &c. &c.

With this letter and passport, Emin set out in the middle of March, in a sledge, over the snow to Moscow, and went thence to Astrakhan, where, hearing that the snow of the Caucasian mountains had stopped the passage, which is commonly every year choked up from the mouth of January till the month of May or June, he thought it necessary to send a padamar with letters to prince Heraclius, and to the Armenians in the mountains of Karabagh (or the Black Garden). It took exactly five months before he received answers. The prince saying nothing worthy of insertion, that the Armenians would serve and die under his horse’s hoofs. He stayed about nine months at Astrakhan, where, after travelling from place to place, and spending half of his capital, 130 l., he heard that Peter the Second was no more. He had reigned exactly one year, from the first of January 1761, to the first of the same month 1762, leaving the empire to his wife, the great Catherina.

At last, thirty Armenian lads, with their arms and horses, joined Emin; and, in the month of May, he set out from Astrakhan to Kizlar, the frontier town of Russia, chiefly inhabited by Armenians and Georgians. About five hundred yards to the east of it is a small fortification, built with mud only, and with four bastions to it, big enough to hold a battalion, and the general with his family; and besides, a large room for about thirty or forty sons of Lazgey mountaineer chiefs, as hostages for their father’s good behaviour, to keep them quiet from revolt or inroading: these, like a sort of prisoners, are paid by the government, and relieved every three or six months by their brothers, or near relations, in turn.

As horses are very cheap in those parts, the Armenians hearing of Emin’s arrival, about three hundred of them, two miles from that place, not considering the bad consequence of that imprudent measure, made a grand entry with him, together with five or six hundred Tartars on horseback; men who live under tents thereabouts, on the banks of the river Tuvky, and who joined the party out of curiosity as mere spectators. This terrified the pusillanimous general Stupition so much, that he drew up the bridge and crept into the fort, the rest of the Armenians and Tartars, with their families, coming out of their houses, with a joyful clamour, saying, "Here comes the prince of Armenia!" so that any person in Stupition’s stead would then have been frightened. Emin acted very cautiously, and would not take a quarter without the general’s order; he therefore sent a messenger to know his pleasure. In the meanwhile he pitched tents in an open place between the fort and the town; but had much ado to persuade the mob to go away from him. The general sent word, with compliments, that he had instructed Galust, the chief of the Armenians, to accommodate him in his house where he alighted, and took quarter. The next morning the general came to visit Emin, who returned the compliment in the evening, and showed the passport; which Stupition, on seeing the name of Peter the Second to it, did not at all approve, but took it from him and kept it, telling him he would consider it. Emin dined with him that day and the next; and on the fourth day after his arrival, the general, with a company of grenadiers and six hundred Circassians and Tartars, came to him; and after some cringing whining ceremony told him, that the pass was not clear, being made in Little Petrus’s time; adding many abusive expressions concerning the deceased. He astonished Emin with this unpolished barbarity; and added, that Petrus was not worthy to reign, nor had sense enough to know the laws of the Russians, which strictly forbad suffering a military man to pass the frontiers of the empire. Emin made no objection, but told the stupid general, that he was very sorry to find a man of his rank possessed of so foul a mouth, and spitting out such poisonous unbecoming words upon the character of an unfortunate prince, who was the grandson of Peter the Great of glorious memory, that enlightener of the Russias, and lawful husband to the famous empress Catherina. He added, "What is the reason you brought so many fighting men? and on the day of my coming hither, you run, like a lusty fellow, into the fort? It seems you are afraid of a single Armenian, who is ashamed to see a Russian general like you frightened at the sight of a mob, who were all the time your own subjects. Such a general as you, is more fit to graze cattle than to command a fort on the confines of an empire. " The man looked as pale as death, and uttered hardly a word for five minutes, the accompanying Circassian and Tartarian officers, with the rest of the troops on horseback and the grenadiers in a circle, seeing this behaviour of Emin, which may appear rash to the reader, it gave those barbarous wild mountaineers a very great opinion of his undaunted resolution; and they took care ever after to report it among the Lazguis, from whom it spread all over Georgia, Turkey, Armenia, and even to Persia. In that critical juncture, they began to mutter to one another in the Tartarian language, saying "This man, while he is alone, has so great a liver, (the Asiatics commonly call a man of courage a man of liver), how much greater will he have if he command a thousand of us?" Stupition began to hang his head, and said, "Sir, I am afraid for your person, if you lie in this house without a proper guard. I have authentic intelligence of five hundred men, about two days journey from this place, waiting to lay hold of you. " Emin said, "No, Sir, they wait to join me, an Armenian Christian, whose principles are well known all over Europe, and in England in particular, where I was esteemed worthy of being recommended to the court of Russia: but I understand your meaning; that I am your prisoner; do your duty, post the guards properly, lest you should run away, as you did some days ago. "

The intention of general Stupition in making this difficulty, was grounded to extort a sum of money, since it was hinted to Emin, through an Armenian, that if he would fee the party handsomely, he might go with safety by the general’s free permission uninterrupted. He thought Emin was worth a great many thousand English guineas; since a ridiculous report went about then, and remains to this day all over Persia, that he was favoured by the son of the king of England with a million sterling, and had such certificates or Bank notes, that in any part of the world, the merchants who should see them, would immediately pay any sum of money he pleased: but they little imagined that his finances, at that very time, were reduced to three hundred Russian dollars; and the million was three hundred pounds allowed him by the earl of Northumberland. The late king George of England had presented him before, by the late lady Yarmouth, with 251. in Bank notes; and after waiting at the late duke of Cumberland’s levee door without daring to enter, when he did enter with the late lord Ancram, who thought even that was too much, he had the singular honour to kiss his Royal Highness’s hand, by virtue of which Emin maintained the character of the richest man in the world. It is ten to one but the Russian Stupition might have heard of this mighty sum, and believe it to be fact; but the poor man was deprived of tasting any of its sweetness, which Emin was most spitefully unwilling to let him have. The argument ended, and sixty men with some grenadiers were posted round the house to guard Emin, who gave his thirty Armenian troopers leave to proceed on their journey to Teffliz, ordering them to wait for him till the next year. The poor fellows went away almost broken-hearted; and the sight of their distress would sensibly have affected any one of the least humanity. The Tartars, joined to the Armenians, made a loud lamentation, cursing the general most heartily. For all the strictness of the charge, and the strength of the guard, could not keep the Tartars, Circassians, and Armenians, from the house where Emin was a sort of a prisoner. This caused great apprehension in the general’s mind, and saved Emin from remaining there a long time, in a state highly disagreeable to a man of spirit. He remembered that when he was at Astrakhan, two gentlemen, Asbeg Tartars, came from Bokhor in their way to Petersburgh upon some negociation, and were detained by the governor, flayed to the very skin, and kept there nine months; and, when he was coming away, they were not permitted to proceed further. The same might have been his lot, if those wild Tartars had not frightened Stupition, who was glad to consent to Emin’s return back to the capital. The general, who wanted activity with diligence, (qualities common to fearful people, ) drew a formal protest, and made about four hundred principal Armenians, Georgians, Tartars, and Indians, sign their names to it; setting forth, That in case the Armenian Emin, who came thither with a wrong passport, were suffered either to stay in the town of Kizlar, or to pass the frontiers, the whole mountainous country of Lazguis, and the inhabitants of the woody plains of Chacham and Muchkez, would flock to him; the consequence of which might end in dangerous troubles, and prove injurious to Kizlar.

Having delivered this paper to a Russian serjeant, he ordered a squadron of twenty Cossack horses, with a Circassian centurion, to conduct Emin from stage to stage, relieving the guard with fresh troopers, to Astrakhan, to acquaint the governor with the business, and thence to set out with the serjeant alone and his two servants to St. Petersburgh. As the suspected track of land was between, and as the governor, to whom he had a letter of recommendation before from Count Worronzoff, was very firm, and wrote a letter to the general, and gave Emin a passport, persuading him to return again to Kizlar; he consented, and was preparing himself to proceed the next day: but in the morning, behold, there came a courier from Stupition, with a letter to the governor, urging him strongly not to let him remain a day longer, nor permit him to return to Kizlar, since he, having the command of the frontiers, would not be the cause of letting him pass; and adding, "he is a dangerous Armenian, brought up in the military profession among the English; his presence will bring on a rebellion of the Lazguis mountaineers on our side, which the Georgian side of course will join; you are sitting at Astrakhan in peace and quiet, not considering the difficulty and the danger of this command in the middle of so many wild barbarians; therefore I desire you will let the man return from whence he came, but will order the serjeant to guard him to his excellency the great chancellor. "

The governor told all this to Emin, through Mr. Rentit, a Swedish merchant at that place, at whose house he had before stayed nine months, who being brought up in London, understood English perfectly well, and by whom Emin was treated with great politeness and hospitality. He was in great concern, expressing himself with extreme sorrow. When parting, Emin comforted him, saying, "My good friend, I am very glad for what has happened: - in the first place, my little money is almost gone; I am sure of being supplied a-fresh by my English friends in Moscow and Petersburgh. Stupition’s ill-natured behaviour, with an intention to hurt me, has made me more considerable in the opinion of that brave wild people, who if I had been allowed to pass, would have looked upon me as one of the common Armenians; but this affair has gained me great reputation; for they will not rest idle to propagate among themselves an opinion, that I must be a very able man, of whom the general was afraid, and prevented me from going on. In time, it will be of infinite service to me, when once I shall be in Georgia and Armenia, the poor ignorant men not knowing that I am but a school-boy in the art of war, for the Orientals are chiefly overcome by the sound of a great man, without which, let a person be ever so brave or rich, they care but very little for him. A man must spend vast sums of money, go through great difficulties, and run into many dangers in hazardous battles, before he can be able to establish a name, and induce the minds of fighting men to follow him, especially when, by God’s assistance, I shall come off with honour, to the joy of my countrymen in Kizlar, and to the mortification of my enemies. As for the fearful Armenian merchants at Astrakhan, who are prophesying that it will cost me 20, 000 l. to clear me out of the scrape, or that I shall be an exile to Siberia, I snap my fingers at them. "

Emin’s good friend Rentil was made easy by this. He therefore took leave and set out, travelling back the same 1, 500 miles, over the best part of the kingdom. It was in the month of August, neither hot nor cold, but pleasant enough, with plenty of victuals, and very cheap, since the governor had charged the orderly serjeant that he should be treated respectfully at every stage; and he had a waggon full of water-melons as presents. He did not go so expeditiously as before. In about thirty-five days he reached the city of Moscow, and saved twelve days journey to Petersburgh, by the empress Catherina’s coming thither to be anointed; and all the English gentlemen came a fortnight after to see the grand ceremony. Emin, with a rich Armenian, named Ivan Lavarwitz, the empress’s head jeweller, and the serjeant, went on Monday morning, and waited upon the count Worronzoff. The sergeant delivered the packet. His excellency, when he broke it open, asked him the reason of his coming from Kizlar? He answered, "I came by the order of Stupition, and with a serjeant also to guard me all the way. " The count was very angry, and immediately ordered the man to go out of the house. He then began to read the report, shook his head, and asked Emin, smiling, the reason of his being sent back so many hundred miles? He said he could not tell; but as far as he could understand, Stupition thought himself more wise in observing men than his superiors: and this prevented him from going about his business; ruined him by the expences of travelling backwards and forwards; and moreover caused an unnecessary trouble to his excellency. He ordered the Armenian Ivan Lazarwitz to tell Emin, that this very morning, before Stupition’s report came, he had received a letter from a particular friend of his in England, in Emin’s favour, giving an account of his honest principles; "and, " added he, "in my opinion, your character is superior to the treacherous letter of Stupition, and his report, which when one casts an eye upon, one forgets the contents of the letter from England; but when I look over the letter again, it has the same effect, and I shall prefer it to the report. Go home, and rest satisfied: we will take care of you for your own sake, and that of our good friends in England. " Emin made his bow, and went away with triumph; but did not dare to ask who was that good angel of a friend who saved him from the destructive fury of Stupition, who thought him but a sheep; but never had imagined that God’s hand was upon his head wherever he went.

After a few days refreshment, he was summoned to attend the secret college of foreign affairs, or secretary’s office as it is called by the English; and when he entered the awful chamber, found there the count Worronzoff, prince Gallitzin, the envoy his old friend, and a very good-natured well looking man an interpreter, standing by the side of the table. Emin did not miss the happy opportunity to express joy in his countenance on seeing the prince, and made dumb compliment with a low bow. He had arrived but a few days, and was created a second chancellor immediately. He smiled on Emin with good-nature in his looks. Worronzoff asked the prince if he knew him? He said, "Yes; and a very honest Armenian he is. " They then ordered the interpreter to inquire of Emin from the first to the last of his coining to that place. He said, he would answer every question they asked him with infinite pleasure. Then the examination began in form, and took up almost three hours. Emin did not conceal the smallest article, sticking close to the truth, and laid before them his whole mind. They said, "By your conversation, we are apt to think that you are descended from some ancient princely family of Armenia. " He said "I humbly beg your Excellencies’ pardon, if I do not deny it: but prince is he that acts like a prince. I am the son of an Armenian. There are many born handsome; but they are not like that man who acts handsomely, which is an English phrase. And how is it possible to find a prince in a nation who have been made subjects to Mahometans above 600 years? They said, "What do you hope should be done for you? - If you stay here in our service, we shall favour you with our friendship to your satisfaction. " He said, he had not left his friends in India, to come to Europe for a livelihood, but for knowledge, to be of some use to his poor countrymen, who are an industrious, brave, honest people, and will soon become formidable, provided they can receive the light of understanding, to acknowledge, by real services, the goodness of Peter the Great of glorious memory, who took the greatest pains for them, and indulged them more than his own subjects. "How came you to know him so well?" said they. "By hearing of him from my father, " answered he, "more than a hundred times, and by reading of his fame in England.

"In the year 1727, his Imperial majesty endeavoured to fix upon some Armenian to be their leader; but, to my great sorrow, he could not find a person resolute enough to concur with his godlike magnanimous mind, and head that people. Mr. Hanway, in his History of Persia, says, That Peter the Great sent Israel the Armenian upon an embassy to Shah Sultan Husin, in Ispahan, who loaded him with riches enough to raise an army. When he came back, Peter asked his own people how the ambassador (unworthy of the title) was received? They said, with great respect. But he changed the route of Peter, and passed through Shamakhy and Sherwan where 18, 000 armed Armenians in a few days gathered about him, in hopes that his glorious Imperial majesty had commanded the Armenian ambassador to head them. This good news to a great and good mind must have afforded extreme satisfaction. All the valuable presents that were sent by the Shah, the generous emperor gave to Israel, not taking to himself the smallest part of them; and with undaunted resolution was going to confer on him the honour of a general, and the title of chief of the Armenians, when he, like a low despicable Jew, made an excuse, saying, that he was a merchant, and could not on that head obey his commands. Peter’s great soul even tried and expostulated, but it was to no purpose; he could be made nothing higher than a Banian.

"A second instance of the same kind happened: - My father Hovsep having told me, that when Ispahan was taken by the Akhvans, a party of horse was ordered by Mahmud Shah to march up to Gilan, and drive out the Russians, who had it then in their possession. There was a Julpha Armenian, named Lazar, at the head of an hundred Armenian or Georgian dragoons, who behaving as well as they could, put the Akhvans army into disorder, and coming up with the colonel of the regiment, defeated the enemy, and obtained a complete victory over them. The news being sent to Peter, and an account, given of the conduct of these brave Armenians, his majesty sent for Lazar. On his arrival, he honoured him with the order of the garter, and the commission of a general, with the command of 12, 000 men, to march and join the grand army against the Osmanlus, or Turks: yet this man, with the same mean excuse, shrugging up his shoulders, and scratching his ears like a brute animal, said, that he could not hold so great a command; which was again no small vexation to Peter. His extreme patience overcoming his anger, instead of degrading, he only pitied the Armenians, among whom could not be found a single person, at that favourable time, to head them. There was wanting your humble servant Emin to satisfy his majesty in his wars: but now you are at peace with the Turks: and as to my accepting your kind offer, for which I heartily thank your greatness, it would be the means of eating the bread of idleness, and buying the cruel character of an impostor; when the world will say, Emin has broken his word: instead of going to Armenia, he made a pretence by the failure of a pass, and stayed in Russia, to live, like, the rest of his countrymen, a pensioner. If you were at war, I should by all means prefer entering your service instead of going to prince Heraclius, who is as poor as myself. In case of my not succeeding with that prince, I will do my utmost to return to Russia, since his Excellency has already graciously favoured me with a letter to Heraclius, ordering me to be sent back in a satisfactory manner. " - When this discourse was ended, both chancellors wished him success, telling him never to mind returning to their country whenever he should think proper, where he would ever be received with great pleasure. They promised to give him a pass when he was ready to set out. Emin made another short speech, with prayers for the success and prosperity of the empire; then went to his lodging.

He had hardly been at Moscow ten days, when he was taken ill with a severe fit of the pleurisy, the same disorder he was attacked with in Florence. To be short, he recovered in seven days, with great pain and difficulty. Prince Gallitzin then sent for him to his own house, and said, That they had acquainted her Imperial majesty with his design; that she was extremely pleased with the spirit of it, and willing to forward his honest pursuits; but that he must wait with patience, as there was time enough for him to attain the end of his wishes. This singularly gracious message of invitation was received three different times, and even an offer made to give him the command of the Armenians at Astracan, if he would consent to kiss her hand, and enter into her service; but he could not be persuaded or moved from his former resolution; and they finding him obstinately unchangeable, were pleased at last to grant him a passport, which cost him but a single ruble, equal to four shillings of English money.

Not having left a single penny in his pocket, he was now as distressed as ever, but did not in the least repent of refusing to accept the 2000 dollars from his German friend Mr. Miller of Riga. He borrowed twelve rubles of Sukiaz Vardapit, an Armenian monk, and desired him to keep it a great secret from the rest of the Armenian inhabitants of Moscow, lest they should grow cool from the warm reception of him in their houses; as he has on several occasions remarked, that if a nation be once subdued, their minds of course will be. A man ever so enterprizing, if he is found moneyless or poor, is despised by them, loses his credit, and is hardly ever taken notice of after a calamity. As the common people entertained an imposing opinion, entirely of their own composition, that the king of England had made him a present of a million pounds sterling such ignorant credulity might be fit for an impostor like Mahomet, to reform them which way he pleased, but not for Emin, who in gratitude to his English benefactors and friends, and in respect to his late majesty, did not contradict this fable in Russia, but told them the truth afterwards, in honour to his principles.

His friends who arrived from Petersburgh were very anxious to know what was become of Emin: the chaplain of the ambassador, lord Buckingham, who had been there before they came, acquainted them with all his transactions; and added, that his lordship was frightened, and would by no means see him, but said, he was a dangerous mad-man. When he was so distressed for want of his lordship’s interest to speak a good word for him to the ministers, the chaplain (whose name is forgotten) did all he could to introduce him to his lordship, but it was not possible, he not in the least resembling the late envoy Mr. Keith, who was gone to England, and would have run into the mouth of a lion for him; nor were his two great friends Dr. Mounsey and Dr. Dumaresque present, both having gone away with Mr. Keith from Petersburgh. Though lord Buckingham was taken more notice of than any other minister, and even played at cards with the empress, which might have given him courage, yet it was said his hands shook, and he could never utter three words together to her, but was all the time as timorous as if he had been sitting in company with a dragon, and afraid of being swallowed.

When Emin (by God’s help), without money, or a single interposer, finished his business alone, he was not insensible of that angel of a friend, who had sent the letter to count Worronzoff. His lordship, hearing of all these proceedings, told his chaplain, Emin’s good friend, that the Armenian was a devil. He begged the messenger of this speech to tell the mighty lord, that he was neither a devil, nor a child fit for school, but a man who knew himself to be a mortal.

Mr. Boad, an eminent merchant, Emin’s great friend, hearing all this, unexpectedly came to his quarters, where, through distress, his heart was hanging by a single hair; took him into his chariot (which had cost 1000l. ), and carried him to the tavern, where his lady and the few English used in the day-time to dine, and in the night they went to their respective quarters to sleep. He there saw Mrs. Boad, his wife, and several gentlemen; she desired her husband to take Emin to his lodging to drink a dish of coffee: she stayed behind, and he went with Mr. Boad, wondering why they could not have coffee in the tavern. When they came to the house, Mr. Boad said, there was no necessity Emin should give himself trouble in relating his distresses; he knew the whole of his manly behaviour and he had no time to spare. He then said in a friendly manner, "Pray, Emin, why will you not go away from this place? I know you have the passport, and suspect the reason of your delay to be this (taking money out of his pocket, and adding) - here are twenty-five Russian gold pieces (each worth twenty rupees), take them for your journey expences, and give me your note of hand; say nothing, or I shall be very angry with you, and Mrs. Boad will never forgive you; it is her desire, and not mine; she has a great regard for you, and loves your spirit. I know your stubbornness of temper, and that you think meanly of accepting a favour, as you did poor Miller’s offer: you kept it a secret from us, but a friend of his told me all that had passed between you and Miller at Riga; it is to your honour, but you are lawfully bound to hear me, as I am an Englishman, and not a German. Here are pen, ink, and paper; let me have the honourable pride to say, that the hero of Armenia is going with his own hand to subscribe himself my debtor. " Emin could not refuse this friendly offer; he took the pen and wrote the following note: "I Joseph Emin, the son of Hovsep Emin, do hereby acknowledge and certify, I have received of Mr. Boad the sum of twenty-five Russian gold pieces, each equal to ten dollars, which makes 250 dollars. The said Mr. Boad, without my giving him notice of my distress, of his own accord offered that assistance which I in great necessity accepted, on this condition, that he would be pleased to receive the above-mentioned sum of twenty-five gold pieces, out of the sum which the earl of Northumberland, my patron, will send or remit in a short time. Witness my hand as, " &c. &c. With this Boad seemed to be satisfied, saying with a smile, "Damn all great men: Come, come, let me take you to your quarters. "

The Armenians, seeing this kindness of his worthy friend, began to make bows lower than usual, joining in belief with the common people’s imaginary million, since they saw him paying the twelve dollars to Sukiaz the monk, on purpose to make a show. Two days after, comes again his friend Mr. Boad in his chariot, and says to him, "Come, Emin, let us go, my wife wants to speak with you. " Emin had a couple of rooms in a large house, with a spacious court to it, where the church was, and several Armenian merchants lodged in different chambers of it; it was in a caravanserai, with the master of the house. These men naturally had the curiosity to learn every thing from his servant, of what passed between him and his English friends; nor did the servants want the quality of busy bodies, to brag of their master’s being so much honoured. He went with Mr. Boad again to the same tavern, whose lady, as before, desired them to go to the same place to drink coffee. No sooner had they entered it, than Mr. Boad drew his sword, and laid it on the table: the coffee was brought by a Russian servant, who seeing the naked destroyer on the table, was frightened out of his wits. Mr. Boad, in a very grave tone of voice, ordered him to go out; he then shut the door, bidding Emin draw his sword, at the same time presenting him a dish of coffee, which he took with great composure, and said, "There is no occasion to draw. " Mr. Boad filled a pipe with tobacco, and said to Emin, "I will tell you a story. " He said, "The story-teller is at the table, there is no occasion to give yourself any trouble. " "No, no, " said he, "an Englishman will not take an advantage, unless you draw likewise: but I must tell my story first. " Then said Emin, "Go on, Sir. " Mr. Boad began thus: "As one day the king of France was sitting after dinner with his favourite Madame de Pompadour, all the servants being gone out, he wanted to light his pipe by the candle on the table; there was no paper, and they were at a loss for it: Madame de Pompadour put her hand into her pocket, took out an English bank-note of 25l. and applying it with her delicate fingers to the candle, lighted the king’s pipe. This made such a noise, that afterwards, for three months together, it was published in newspapers all over Europe, as an act of liberality: she having at that time 200, 000l. secure in our Bank of England. Where is the merit of that? I, who have not the tenth part of that sum, am a man, and hearing of a woman, who, if she had not been the king’s mistress, would be deemed no better than one of the common women in Covent-garden, will bid a defiance to those who praised her to the skies. As to lighting my honest pipe with your note, I swear, if you stir to hold my hand, or prevent the burning of it, I will run you through immediately. " He then burned it to ashes, after lighting his pipe. Emin thanked him heartily for his uncommon mode of generosity, and the pretended challenge turned into a stronger amity, and eternal friendship; for, twenty-four years after, lord Macartney, when he came from Madras to Calcutta, told him, that his friend Mr. Boad at Petersburgh spoke of him very kindly.

Mr. Thomson, another gentleman resident at Moscow, made him a present of five of the same pieces. The Armenian gentleman mentioned before, Ivan Lazarwitz, head jeweller to the empress, and his only friend among so many Armenians in all the Russian empire, seeing the English so willing to serve him, was obliged in honour to lend him twenty-five ten-dollar pieces, but never would be paid ever after. Before his setting out from Moscow, his patron the earl of Northumberland, by the hand of his amiable friend the late Miss Talbot, remitted 100 guineas. The Armenian’s father Lazar, who was not acquainted with his son’s liberality, gave him five of the same coin, with a large loaf of sugar weighing forty pounds, and five pounds of tea.

Had Mr. Boad, or Mr. Thomson, been worth half as much money as Ivan Lazarwitz, they would with pleasure have saved Emin the pain of being beholden to any great man existing: but, instead of that, the former was at that time 15, 000 tumans in debt to the Russian government, and lost every part of his capital in merchandizing in the late war, amounting to 300, 000 rupees. The capital of the other, who was in a tolerable good way, was about 30, 000 dollars. It was therefore great merit in the Armenian jeweller, whose father but lately died, leaving three sons and a daughter; and to the eldest son Ivan (Emin’s friend) had left the grand manufactory, together with 8000 Russian slaves bought by him; all which were then valued at 40, 000 tumans, or 800, 000 rupees; and he gave also to the other two sons, and to the daughter 12, 000 tumans each, and 6000 tumans to the churches and the poor. With all this wealth, Lazar thought himself doing a generous action, in giving Emin five pieces of gold, with a loaf of sugar; and his son in lending him twenty-five pieces! Emin should not have made this remark, to expose the Armenians’ stinginess, but speaking the truth is doing justice to all; for a soldier in particular, whose tongue and heart should go together. If the Armenian merchants had half the attachment to liberty that they have to money and to superstitions, which are ruinous in many respects, they would have been made free long ago: but that horrid superstition has become so predominant, and so instilled into their minds, running through every muscle and vein, and so intermixed with their blood and humour that they really deserve the pity more than the reflections of the public. They actually do not know what liberty is; could they once but taste the sweetness of it, and drive old women’s stories out of their good hearts, they would certainly be a great nation. It has been Emin’s darling ambition only to tear off that obscure curtain from before their eyes, which motive forced him to go through such a multitude of toils. In any other case, he should have esteemed it imprudent to reflect on himself, as well as his poor countrymen, almost in every page of these memoirs; but when the reader shall candidly consider the subject, he will find the writer acts, in speaking openly concerning them, for their own good, and by no means with an intention to give the smallest offence or dissatisfaction to them: on the contrary, his chief object is to rouse them from their innocent slumbers, which happiness, he is sensible, cannot be in any man’s power to confer, unless God graciously bestow it on them.